Private individuals and businesses
- Pay attention to conflicts of interest, meaning situations where the organisation has multiple interests, financial or otherwise, one of which may corrupt the motivation or decision-making ability of the individual or organisation in question.
- Avoid dual roles, meaning situations where an individual holds two simultaneous roles; for example, as a participant in a tendering process and as a decision-maker.
- Do not give precedence to an individual, company or other party without justification. Also make sure not to favour relatives or help friends and acquaintances in reciprocal and unjustified ways. Cronyism refers to networks that are closed to some extent and whose activities are based on reciprocity and unethical favouritism.