Reporting data to the Incomes Register: rewarding employees, payments made to an entrepreneur and other special circumstances

Date of issue
1/2/2020
Record no.
VH/6317/00.01.00/2019
Validity
1/2/2020 - Until further notice

These instructions are intended for payers of contributions. The instructions use examples to describe the reporting of data to the Incomes Register, when the data concerns

  • rewarding an employee with, for example, an employee stock option;
  • seafarer’s income;
  • payments made to companies and entrepreneurs;
  • compensation for use; or
  • a payment based on a separate task, such as a payment made to an athlete or a performing artist.

The monetary wages paid must always be reported to the Incomes Register at least as a total amount (the minimum level of detail for reporting, or the so-called reporting method 1). If the payer wishes, it can report the monetary wages it has paid more specifically than required by the mandatory reporting method, using the separate complementary income types intended for this purpose (the higher level of detail for reporting, or the so-called reporting method 2). Reporting methods 1 and 2 cannot be combined in the same report. The method of reporting monetary wages does not affect the reporting of all the payments described in these instructions. Many of the payments described here must always be itemised regardless of the reporting method for monetary wages chosen by the payer.

The examples in these instructions describe reporting data both as a total amount and in an itemised manner. The examples do not present all data whose submission is mandatory, only the data necessary to reporting the special circumstances described in these instructions. The reporting of withholding, for example, is not separately described. The monetary amounts used in the example are illustrative in nature, and the amount of social insurance contributions, the withholding rate and tax-exempt reimbursement of expenses must be checked annually. The withholding is determined based on the earner-specific withholding rate.

These instructions describe reporting in domestic situations. Reporting data to the Incomes Register in international situations is described in the instructions Reporting data to the Incomes Register: international situations. Questions related to substitute payers and wage security are discussed in the instructions Reporting data to the Incomes Register: payments made by substitute payer.

These instructions replace the previous instructions, Reporting data to the Incomes Register: rewarding employees, payments made to an entrepreneur and other special circumstances. The following additions and changes have been made to the instructions:

  • specified the reporting of the transfer tax paid on the basis of the sale of employee stock options and share bonuses
  • specified the reporting of a taxable personnel benefit
  • changed the guidance for withholding tax from a reimbursement of expenses paid to a family day-care provider
  • added guidance for reporting when a payment is made to a self-employed person with no obligation to take out insurance
  • specified the reporting of a share issue for employees
  • added more guidance for reporting kilometre allowances paid by a non-profit organisation
  • specified the reporting of seafarers' income in more detail and added an example
  • added guidance for persons operating through invoicing service companies
  • specified the guidance for reporting non-wage compensation for work paid by a public sector payer
  • specified the guidance in the training fund section
  • specified the guidance for reporting a kinship carer's fee
  • changed the guidance for reporting competition prizes
  • added a new section on the reporting of lump sum payments made by a registered association
  • added a new section on the reporting of services and work performances ordered via platforms and applications.

1 Rewarding an employee

1.1 Employee stock option

An employee stock option is a remuneration given in the form of the employer company's stock option. An employee stock option benefit is an employment-based right to receive or obtain shares in an organisation at a price lower than the market value under predetermined conditions. The benefit is based on a convertible bond, optional bond, right of option, or other such agreement or commitment equivalent to these.

In the case of an employee stock option, the data needed for insurance purposes and the data needed for taxation purposes differ from each other in some situations. For this reason, data related to employee stock options is reported using two different income types, if necessary: Employee stock option with a subscription price lower than the market price at the time of issue (361) and Employee stock option (343).

1.1.1 Employee stock option with a subscription price lower than the market price at the time of issue

In this section, the time of issue means the time when the employer gives the employee stock option benefit to the employee, or the time when the employee receives the employee stock option.

A calculated benefit counted as earnings from work on which pension is based may also arise for the employee at the moment that the employee is included in an option scheme and receives employee stock options. If the subscription price of the option at the time of issue is clearly lower than the market price of the share, the amount of benefit gained from the employee stock option is not primarily based on share price development in the future. Instead, the employee receives a benefit that can be clearly estimated and has monetary value at the time of issue. A benefit deemed earnings from work is created immediately when the employee receives the right of option, rather than when the right of option is exercised. The benefit is deemed remuneration for work, and it is taken into consideration in the earnings from work on which pension is based, as well as in the grounds for unemployment insurance contributions and accident and occupational disease insurance contributions.

An employee stock option with a subscription price lower than market price at the time of issue affects the insurance obligation but not the taxability of the income.

The benefit is not taxable income, and no employer's health insurance contribution needs to be paid from it.

Example 1: An employee receives a right of option with a subscription price of one euro. At the time the right of option was issued, the market price of the share is three euros. At the time the right of option was issued, the employee receives a benefit amounting to two euros, which is taken into account as earnings from work. Because it is not taxable, the two-euro benefit is reported to the Incomes Register using the income type Employee stock option with a subscription price lower than the market price at the time of issue (361).

If the subscription price of the option at the time of issue matches the current market price of the share (or is higher), the possible benefit from the employee stock options is formed (entirely) based on the share's price development. The work input of the employee (or that of the entire staff of the company) does not have a direct impact on the amount of benefit received. For this reason, the possible benefit gained from the increase in share price is not deemed remuneration for work, and the benefit is not included in the earnings from work on which pension is based; neither does it serve as grounds for unemployment insurance contributions or accident and occupational disease insurance contributions. In such a case, no report needs to be submitted to the Incomes Register when the employee is issued the employee stock option. 

For more details, see the Employment Pension Legislation Service of the Finnish Centre for Pensions' application instructions Employee stock options and equivalent profit sharing arrangements (in Finnish).

1.1.2 Employee stock option

When the employee exercises the employee stock option, tax is withheld from the gained benefit. The benefit from an employee stock option is not subject to social insurance contributions.

The benefit gained from the employee stock option is reported to the Incomes Register using the Employee stock option (343) income type. The value of the employee stock option is the market value of the share at the moment the employee stock option is exercised. The total price the employee pays for the share and the employee stock option is deducted from the value of the benefit.  The employee stock option is reported in its entirety on the report for the pay period during which the employee has announced the exercising of the employee stock option.

Example 2: The employee exercises the employee stock option in February. The taxable value of the benefit is EUR 22,000. The benefit is taken into account in the prepayment of tax as equal instalments (EUR 2,000 x 11 months or EUR 2,200 x 10 months). A report for the employee stock option is submitted to the Incomes Register using the Employee stock option income type, with the amount reported as EUR 22,000.00. Employee stock options are not reported to the Incomes Register in March-December even though they are taken into account when calculating the amount of withholding. The tax withheld is reported to the Incomes Register in the amount withheld.

Example 3: The employee receives a EUR 100,000 employee stock option in July. The employee has a tax card with a withholding rate of 40% at the time. Tax is divided for withholding during the remainder of the year, over a period of 5 months (August–December).

The EUR 100,000 employee stock option is reported to the Incomes Register in July, but not the withholding, as tax will be withheld for the first time in August.

In August and September, the tax withheld according to the tax card, EUR 8,000 per month, is reported to the Incomes Register. At the beginning of October, the employee applies for a new tax card with a withholding rate of 42%.

No tax has yet been withheld for three out of five months for the income received in July or, in this case, reported to the Incomes Register.

The customer provides a new tax card that is valid from 1 October. The withholding for October is then 42% from EUR 20,000 (one month’s taxable income), or EUR 8,400.

This is continued until the end of the year, unless the employee provides a new tax card.

The data is reported to the Incomes Register according to the payment principle. If a non-monetary payment is sporadic, tax can be withheld during the same calendar year in two ways: the entire payment is added to the amount paid in the payment period after the benefit was granted, or the payment is divided into four equal instalments and added to the amounts paid in the remaining payment months during the calendar year after the benefit was granted. If the value of a sporadic payment is no more than EUR 400 per year, tax may be withheld once a year, no later than in connection with the withholding from the last monetary payment in the calendar year (decree on tax prepayments, section 9 (ennakkoperintäasetus 1124/1996)). Employee stock options are reported in full when the option is exercised, even if tax is withheld over the same calendar year as described above.

The earnings period is voluntary complementary data that can be used to indicate the period during which the income was accrued. The employee stock option vesting period can be entered as the option earnings period. In this case, the earnings period begins from the granting of the option and ends at its vesting.

For more information on employee stock options, see the Tax Administration's Guidelines Taxation of employee stock options (in Finnish). The taxation of options amassed from work abroad is discussed in the instructions Taxation of employee stock options and share issues for employees in international situations (in Finnish). In addition, Reporting data to the Incomes Register: international situations, Section 2.3.6 describes the reporting of employee stock options for work abroad. The concept of employee stock options is different in earnings-related pension laws and taxation. For more details, see the Employment Pension Legislation Service of the Finnish Centre for Pensions' application instructions Employee stock options and equivalent profit sharing arrangements (in Finnish).

Employee stock options can be implemented so that a portion of the options obtained from the arrangement are sold, and this sold portion is paid in money to cover taxes. The Employee stock option (343) income type can be used to report both the amount granted in shares and the amount paid in money to cover taxes if they are part of the same contribution. The share of the employee stock option that was not paid in money is reported as a separate amount with the additional information 'Payment other than money – Yes'.

Example 4: Employee stock options are implemented as an arrangement where the employee receives a benefit of EUR 100,000. The share of shares is EUR 70,000 and the share of the monetary payment is EUR 30,000.

Example 4.
Data to be reported EUR
343 Employee stock option 30000.00

343 Employee stock option

Payment other than money: Yes

70000.00
 

If the arrangement is considered an employee stock option in tax legislation but the interpretation is different in pension legislation, the social insurance contributions paid from the income must be checked separately and the appropriate income type (343 or 361) must be used in each case.

If the employer pays the transfer tax on behalf of the employee, for example in a situation where a transferable right of option is transferred or old shares are subscribed on the basis of the right of option, the employer must report the amount of the transfer tax it paid to the Incomes Register using income type Other fringe benefit (317). The payment is not subject to social insurance contributions, so the employer uses the Type of insurance information data connected to the Other fringe benefit income type to report that the payment is not subject to social insurance contributions. The obligation to collect the health insurance contribution is determined as based on whether the original payment was subject to the health insurance contribution.

For more information on employee stock options, see the Tax Administration's Guidelines Taxation of employee stock options (in Finnish) and the Employment Pension Legislation Service of the Finnish Centre for Pensions’ application instructions Employee stock options and equivalent profit sharing arrangements (in Finnish).

1.2 Stock options and grants

Stock options and grants are a remuneration paid in shares of the employer company or, instead of the agreed remuneration, an amount paid in euros that equals the value of the shares. Stock options and grants are reported to the Incomes Register using the income type Stock options and grants (320).

Tax is always withheld from stock options and grants. Social insurance contributions are not paid if the following conditions are met:

  • Under the profit sharing system, the employee has the possibility of obtaining shares in the employer company, listed on a stock exchange. A company belonging to the same group or some other equivalent financial conglomerate is also considered to be an employer company.
  • The value of the benefit depends on the development of the price of the shares in question over a time period following the promising of the remuneration, which is at least one year in length.

Stock option and grant schemes are often implemented so that a part of the shares received by the employee under the arrangement are sold immediately after receiving the shares to cover the taxes paid for the stock options or grants. Another typical model is that the amount of the stock options and grants is defined in shares, but a part is paid in money without the shares being sold. In both cases, the information is reported to the Incomes Register according to the same principles. The Stock options and grants (320) income type is used to report the amount granted in shares and the amount paid in money. The share of the stock options and grants that was not paid in money is reported as a separate amount with the additional information 'Payment other than money – Yes'. Stock options and grants received from unlisted companies are also reported as described above.

Otherwise, the remuneration is income subject to social insurance contributions. For example, if the time between being promised the remuneration, gained from a company listed on the stock exchange, and receiving it is less than one year, the remuneration is subject to social insurance contributions.

In such a situation, if a part of the stock options and grants is paid in money to cover taxes, this share of the payment must be reported using the Stock options and grants (320) income type. Social insurance contributions are paid from the income. The Stock options and grants income type is used to report both the amount granted in shares and the amount paid in money. The share of the stock options and grants that was not paid in money is reported as a separate amount with the additional information 'Payment other than money – Yes'.

The employer reports the insurance information using the separate Insurance information type entry. For more information on insurance information, see the instructions Reporting data to the Incomes Register: insurance-related data.

Example 5 (listed company, vesting period less than a year): The employee receives EUR 50,000 in stock options and grants, of which EUR 20,000 was paid to the income earner in money and EUR 30,000 in shares. Both the share paid in money and as shares is reported using the Stock options and grants income type. The share of the stock options and grants that was not received in money is reported as a separate amount with the additional information 'Payment other than money – Yes'. If necessary, the Type of insurance information is confirmed for the income type. By default, the Stock options and grants income type is not subject to health, unemployment, or accident and occupational disease insurance contributions. However, the income type is subject to an earnings-related pension insurance contribution.

In this case, social insurance contributions are paid from the fee paid, and it is reported using the Type of insurance information.

Example 5.
Data to be reported EUR

320 Stock options and grants

Type of insurance information: Subject to social insurance contributions,

grounds for insurance contribution: Yes

20000.00

320 Stock options and grants

Payment other than money: Yes

Type of insurance information: Subject to social insurance contributions,

grounds for insurance contribution: Yes

30000.00

Example 6 (listed company, vesting period more than a year): The employee receives EUR 100,000 in stock options and grants, of which 30,000 was paid to the income earner in money and 70,000 was paid in shares. Both the share paid in money and as shares is reported using the Stock options and grants income type. The share of the stock options and grants that was not paid in money is reported as a separate amount with the additional information 'Payment other than money – Yes'. If necessary, the Type of insurance information is confirmed for the income type. By default, the Stock options and grants income type is not subject to health, unemployment, or accident and occupational disease insurance contributions. However, the income type is subject to an earnings-related pension insurance contribution.

In this case, the fee paid is not subject to any social insurance contribution, and it is reported using the type of insurance information.

Example 6.
Data to be reported EUR

320 Stock options and grants

Type of insurance information: Subject to earnings-related pension insurance contribution,

grounds for insurance contribution:No

30000.00

320 Stock options and grants

Payment other than money: Yes

Type of insurance information: Subject to earnings-related pension insurance contribution,

grounds for insurance contribution: No

70000.00

If the company is listed and the vesting period is less than a year, the share paid in money is reported as in example 5.

If the terms of the stock options and grants scheme stipulate that taxes are to be covered by a separate monetary payment made by the employer in addition to the stock options and grants, such a monetary payment constitutes regular monetary wages.  If a payment made in money is not subject to some social insurance contribution, the income type Other taxable benefit for employees (315) is used to report the payment, and the insurance information for the income type can be specified in a manner suitable for the situation. However, if the payment made in money is subject to social insurance contributions, any income type for monetary wages suitable for the situation can be used in reporting.

Example 7: The employee receives EUR 50,000 as stock options and grants. Taxes are covered by a separate EUR 10,000 monetary payment made by the employer. Both the stock options and grants and monetary payment are subject to social insurance contributions.

Example 7.
Data to be reported EUR
201 Time-rate pay 10000.00

320 Stock options and grants

Payment other than money: Yes

Type of insurance information: Subject to social insurance contributions,

grounds for insurance contribution: Yes

50000.00

If the employer pays the transfer tax related to a stock option on behalf of the employee, the employer must report the amount of the transfer tax paid to the Incomes Register using income type Other fringe benefit (317). If the payment is not subject to social insurance contributions in this kind of situation, the employer uses the Type of insurance information data connected to the Other fringe benefit income type to report that the payment is not subject to social insurance contributions. The obligation to collect the health insurance contribution is determined as based on whether the original payment was subject to the health insurance contribution. Correspondingly, if the employer pays the taxes related to a payment that is income from work on which pension is based on behalf of the employee, the taxes paid by the employer are also considered to be income from work on which pension is based.

For more information on stock options and grants, see the Tax Administration's Guidelines Taxation of employee stock options and the Employment Pension Legislation Service of the Finnish Centre for Pensions' application instructions Stock options and grants (both in Finnish).

1.3 Benefit arising from synthetic option

A synthetic option means a right of option based on which the employee receives a monetary remuneration determined on the basis of the development of the employer company's share price (net value settlement). The employee is not entitled to subscribe shares underlying the option. Instead of a synthetic option, this arrangement may be called a share-based bonus or reward system.

Tax is withheld from the benefit arising from a synthetic option, but no social insurance contributions are paid. 

The benefit arising from a synthetic option can be reported to the Incomes Register either using the income type Total wages (101) (reporting method 1) or the income type Benefit arising from synthetic option (222) (reporting method 2). If the benefit arising from a synthetic option is reported using the income type Total wages, the Insurance information type entry must be used to separately report that the share of the synthetic option of the total amount is not subject to social insurance contributions. For more information on insurance information, see the instructions Reporting data to the Incomes Register: insurance-related data.

A dividend equivalent can be paid for synthetic options. The dividend equivalent is paid on the basis of a profit sharing system to a person who is employed by the employer company but is not a shareholder. When the shareholders are paid dividends, the beneficiaries covered by the synthetic option system are paid dividend equivalents. The amount of the dividend equivalent is based on the amount of dividends paid to the shareholders. The dividend equivalent is reported to the Incomes Register either using the income type Total wages (101) or, for example, the income type Other compensation (216). The dividend equivalent is subject to social insurance contributions.

The Synthetic option income type is not used to report synthetic stock options and grants. The employee's health insurance contribution and employer's health insurance contribution are both paid from synthetic stock options and grants. Synthetic stock options and grants can be reported to the Incomes Register either using the income type Total wages (101) (reporting method 1) or the income type Other compensation (216). The payments are a monetary benefit. For more information, see the Tax Administration's Guidelines Taxation of employee stock options, Section Synthetic option (in Finnish).

For more information on synthetic options, see the Finnish Centre for Pensions' application instructions Employee stock options and equivalent profit sharing arrangements and the Tax Administration's Guidelines Taxation of employee stock options (both in Finnish). The Tax Administration's guidelines also discuss the taxation of options accrued from work abroad.

1.4 Personnel funds, performance bonuses and profit-sharing bonuses

1.4.1 Transferring funds into a personnel fund

The personnel fund receives funds from the employer's performance bonus and profit sharing systems as personnel fund contributions or their supplements, and the returns from the investment of these contributions. A personnel fund may also receive funds as donations. Each member of the personnel fund holds a share in the assets in the fund (their own fund shares). Transfers to a personnel fund are not reported to the Incomes Register.

If an employer pays an employee in cash instead of transferring the amount to a personnel fund, the payment is reported as regular wages and social insurance contributions are collected from it.

1.4.2 Share of reserve and surplus drawn from personnel fund

An employee can withdraw fund units or contributions from the personnel fund in cash. Twenty percent of a fund unit withdrawn from a personnel fund is tax-exempt income and 80% is taxable earned income. For taxation purposes, surplus withdrawn from a personnel fund is treated in the same way as a fund unit withdrawn from a personnel fund. For more information, see the Tax Administration's Guidelines Taxation of income from a personnel fund (in Finnish).

The taxable share withdrawn from a personnel fund is reported to the Incomes Register using the income type Share of reserve and surplus drawn from personnel fund (taxable 80%) (309). Only items withdrawn from a fund as fund units or surplus are reported using this income type. Tax is withheld, but social insurance payments are not paid from the amount withdrawn from the fund. The tax-exempt part is not reported to the Incomes Register. If the payment was withdrawn in cash, it is reported to the Incomes Register as regular wages, for example using the income types Total wages, Time-rate pay or Other compensation.

1.4.3 Performance bonus

Performance bonus is a remuneration paid based on meeting or exceeding the organisation's performance target agreed in advance.

Tax is withheld and social insurance contributions paid from a performance bonus, unless the performance bonus is transferred to the personnel fund. The performance bonus is reported to the Incomes Register either using the income type Total wages (101) (reporting method 1) or the income type Performance bonus (223) (reporting method 2). If the performance bonus is transferred to a personnel fund, it is not reported to the Incomes Register (see Section 1.4.1).

1.4.4 Profit-sharing bonus

Profit-sharing bonus is a remuneration distributed among employees without an advance plan, by a decision of the annual general meeting and determined based on the company's profits.

Tax is withheld from all profit-sharing bonuses other than those transferred into a personnel fund. The profit-sharing bonus can be paid directly to the employee instead of being transferred into a personnel fund, in which case no social insurance contributions are paid from the bonus. If the company does not have a personnel fund as described in the Act on Personnel Funds, no social insurance contributions are paid from the profit-sharing bonus if it is paid as a distribution of profits or in cash. The exemption from social insurance contributions also requires that the cash profit-sharing bonus is paid to all personnel and is not an attempt to replace a system of remuneration required by the collective bargaining agreement or the employment contract. Furthermore, the basis for determining a cash bonus must be in accordance with the Employees' Pensions Act, the Workers' Compensation Act and the Act on Personnel Funds, and the amount of the company's free capital must be greater than the total amount of the cash-based profit-sharing bonus and the dividend paid to shareholders as decided by the annual general meeting.

The profit-sharing bonus is reported to the Incomes Register either using the income type Total wages (101) (reporting method 1) or the income type Profit-sharing bonus (233) (reporting method 2). If the profit-sharing bonus is transferred to a personnel fund, it is not reported to the Incomes Register (see Section 1.4.1).

1.5 Monetary gift for employees

A gift from the employer received as cash or a comparable payment is reported to the Incomes Register using the income type Monetary gift for employees (310).

A monetary gift is deemed taxable income subject to withholding. No social insurance contributions are paid from a monetary gift if the monetary gift was given due to the employee's anniversary or for some other personal reason of this kind. If the monetary gift was not given on the employee's anniversary, for example, if the employee was paid 13th month pay, a Christmas bonus, a monetary company anniversary gift, or a monetary retirement gift, social insurance contributions must be collected from the payment.

By default, this income type is subject to social insurance contributions.

If the monetary gift given is not subject to social insurance contributions, the employer must report this separately using the Insurance information type entry. For more information on insurance information, see the instructions Reporting data to the Incomes Register: insurance-related data. However, when a gift such as a gift card is given as a reward for the performance of work, i.e. as remuneration for work, it is reported using the Other fringe benefit (317) income type.

1.6 Other taxable benefit for employees

A non-monetary taxable benefit collectively granted to personnel by the employer is reported to the Incomes Register using the income type Other taxable benefit for employees (315).

If the benefit has been granted collectively to all personnel, it is not subject to social insurance contributions. By default, for this income type the benefit is not subject to social insurance contributions. Tax is withheld from the income.

If the benefit has only been granted to some personnel, it is taxable in its entirety and subject to social insurance contributions. In such a case, the employer reports the insurance information by using the Information insurance type entry. For more information on insurance information, see the instructions Reporting data to the Incomes Register: insurance-related data.

Tax-exempt personnel benefits such as exercise and culture benefits given to an employee are not reported to the Incomes Register. However, if the amount of the exercise and culture benefit exceeds the tax-exempt annual maximum amount laid down in law (EUR 400), the part exceeding the tax-exempt benefit is taxable income and is reported to the Incomes Register. If a taxable benefit was given collectively to the entire personnel, the taxable part is reported using the income type Other taxable benefit for employees (315), in which case the payment is not subject to social insurance contributions. If only part of the personnel is given the benefit, the payment is subject to social insurance contributions. The Type of insurance information data is then included with the Other taxable benefit for employees income type to report that the payment is subject to social insurance contributions.

The income type Other taxable benefit for employees (315) is also used in a situation where the employer pays a daily allowance to the employee on more lenient grounds than those specified in the decision by the Tax Administration. The Insurance information type entry can then be used to indicate that the employer is paying a daily allowance to the employee on more lenient grounds, based on a collective bargaining agreement, than those specified in the decision by the Tax Administration. The income is then not subject to earnings-related pension, unemployment, or accident and occupational disease insurance contributions. However, it is subject to a health insurance contribution.

Due to the amendment to the Annual Holidays Act that came into force on 1 April 2019, an employee is entitled to compensation for additional days off supplementing the annual holiday that corresponds to their regular or average wages, if the duration of the annual holiday they have earned is less than 24 days, due to long-term illness or medical rehabilitation (Annual Holidays Act, section 7 a). Compensation for additional days off supplementing the annual holiday is reported using the income type Other taxable benefit for employees (315). The compensation for additional days off supplementing the annual holiday is subject to the health insurance contribution, but not other social insurance contributions. Because the default for the income type is that the benefit is not subject to social insurance contributions, the income type must include the Type of insurance information Subject to health insurance contribution: Yes. The compensation for additional days off supplementing an annual holiday cannot be reported using income type Annual holiday compensation (234), because the income type in question is subject to social insurance contributions, and the insurance information cannot be changed for this income type. The report for the compensation paid for additional days off is submitted when the compensation is paid. The compensation is always reported in the same way regardless of whether the compensation is paid for additional days taken off during employment or whether the compensation is paid for additional days off upon the termination of the employment.

1.7 Share issue for employees

A share issue for employees is a share issue targeted at the company's personnel. The income taxation of a share issue for employees is bound to the relationship between the share's subscription price and market price: If the subscription price matches the market value, no taxable benefit is created for the employee subscribing the shares. If, however, the subscription price is lower than the share's market value, it is a case of benefit granted on the basis of employment, deemed earned income of the employee received at the time of subscription. The subscription benefit also applies to shares in an organisation.

However, no taxable benefit is created if the discount is no more than 10% and the benefit is available to a majority of the personnel. It is enough if the personnel have the opportunity to participate in the share issue if they so desire. In such a case, nothing needs to be reported to the Incomes Register. If the benefit is available to the majority of personnel, but the effective discount is over 10%, the income type Share issue for employees (226) is used to report only the amount exceeding the 10% discount to the Incomes Register. The benefit is not subject to social insurance contributions. If the benefit is not available to the majority of personnel, the entire discount received is regarded as wages subject to social insurance contributions.  The payer will then report the entire payment using the income type Share issue for employees (226) and enter the Type of insurance information indicating that the income is subject to social insurance contributions. For more information on insurance information, see the instructions Reporting data to the Incomes Register: insurance-related data.

Tax is withheld from the income reported with the income type Share issue for employees (226), but by default, the income is not subject to social insurance contributions.

2 Seafarer's income

Seafarer's income is wage income paid for work performed on board a vessel, related to the maritime traffic of the vessel. The vessel must have a gross capacity of no less than 100 register tons. The work is performed while in the employment of the shipowner, and must meet the requirements laid down in the income tax act (tuloverolaki 1535/1992). The wage income can be paid as a monetary remuneration or as a benefit worth money. This provision applies to both Finnish and foreign vessels. For more information, see the Tax Administration's Guidelines Taxation of seafarer's income (in Finnish).

Seafarer's income is reported to the Incomes Register just like regular wage income, with the addition of the Payment is seafarer's income and, if necessary, Time of cross trade and Withdrawal period entries.

If the wages paid to the employee are deemed to be seafarer's income, the Payment is seafarer's income entry must be separately made for all payments made to, benefits given to, and items deducted from the income of the employee. The seafarer's income information is entered for all income types used on the report; also including reimbursements collected from fringe benefits and withholding, for example.

Example 8: A maritime employer pays its employee EUR 5,000 in monthly wages. The employee is also paid EUR 200 in overtime pay. He has also been given a housing benefit of EUR 900 as a fringe benefit, from which the employer collects EUR 200 as a reimbursement. The income received by the employee is seafarer's income. The employee reports the information as follows:

Example 8.

Mandatory minimum level:

Alternative method:

Reporting method 1

EUR

Reporting method 2

EUR

101 Total wages

Payment is seafarer's income: Yes

5200.00

201 Time-rate pay

Payment is seafarer's income: Yes

5000.00

317 Other fringe benefit

Type of benefit: Accommodation benefit

Payment is seafarer's income: Yes

900.00

235 Overtime compensation

Payment is seafarer's income: Yes

200.00

 

 

301 Accommodation benefit

Payment is seafarer's income: Yes

900.00

402 Withholding tax

Payment is seafarer's income: Yes

1770.00

402 Withholding tax

Payment is seafarer's income: Yes

1770.00

407 Reimbursement collected for other fringe benefits

Payment is seafarer's income: Yes

200.00

407 Reimbursement collected for other fringe benefits

Payment is seafarer's income: Yes

200.00

413 Employee's pension insurance contribution

Payment is seafarer's income: Yes

421.85

413 Employee's pension insurance contribution

Payment is seafarer's income: Yes

421.85

414 Employee's unemployment insurance contribution

Payment is seafarer's income: Yes

73.75

414 Employee's unemployment insurance contribution

Payment is seafarer's income: Yes

73.75

If the employee works on board a vessel that does not visit Finnish territory during the month in question, the employee is entitled to a cross trade deduction in their taxation. The shipowner paying the seafarer's income reports the time of cross trade as full months for the purpose of granting the cross trade deduction. If the pay period is not a calendar month, information on the time of cross trade is not submitted on an earnings payment report until the payer knows that the grounds for the cross trade deduction have been fulfilled for the month in question. The time of cross trade is reported by specifying the number of months for which the employee is entitled to the cross trade deduction.

Example 9: The employer's pay period is two weeks. Three pay periods end in April: weeks 12–13, weeks 14–15 and weeks 16–17. The employer cannot be sure that the time of cross trade condition has been fulfilled for April until reporting the wage payment for weeks 16–17 to the Incomes Register. The employer has also been entitled to a cross trade deduction in March, but not in January or February. In the earnings payment report for weeks 16–17, the employer reports 2 as the value of the Time of cross trade entry.

Seafarer's income is income for the year during which it was paid or recorded in the employee's account, regardless of during which calendar year the wages were earned or from which period it was accrued. Seafarer's income is reported to the Incomes Register as earnings from the date on which it has been actually paid to the employee monetarily.

  • If, however, the income has been available for withdrawal under maritime labour legislation and an agreement complementing it prior to the actual payment date, the withdrawal period details must be reported for the payment: Withdrawal period, start date and Withdrawal period, end date.
  • If the income has not been available for withdrawal under maritime labour legislation and an agreement complementing it prior to the actual payment date, the withdrawal period is not specified for the payment.

Example 10: An employee works on board a vessel for December and January. The maritime employer's pay period is one calendar month, and the wages are available for withdrawal on the last day of the wage payment month. The employee is offshore for December, due to which the December wages of EUR 2,600 are not paid to the employee's account until January. Because the income could have been withdrawn on the last day of December, it is taxable income for the year in which it could have been withdrawn. The maritime employer enters the first day of December as the start date of the withdrawal period and the last day of December, and the year as the end date. The employee's right to a cross trade deduction for March to December is also reported on the earnings payment report.

A separate report is submitted for January (not depicted here).

Example 10.
Mandatory minimum level Alternative method
Reporting method 1 EUR Reporting method 2 EUR
101 Total wages 2600.00 201 Time-rate pay 2600.00
Time of cross trade: 10 Time of cross trade: 10

Payment is seafarer's income: Yes

Withdrawal period, start date: 01122019

Withdrawal period, end date: 31122019

Payment is seafarer's income: Yes

Withdrawal period, start date: 01122019

Withdrawal period, end date: 31122019

3 Payments made to companies and entrepreneurs

3.1 Non-wage compensation for work

Non-wage compensation for work is remuneration for work, a task or service not paid as wages.

The work is performed based on a commission relationship, i.e., the employee is not in an employment relationship with the payer. Non-wage compensation for work is taxable income, and tax is withheld from it if the recipient is not registered in the prepayment register.

Only payments made to a worker not registered in the prepayment register must be reported to the Incomes Register (certain exceptions to this are discussed in Section 3.1.2), so tax must be withheld from them. These payments are reported using the income type Non-wage compensation for work (336). A report must be submitted even if the recipient of the non-wage compensation for work is not a natural person – for example, a limited liability company, general partnership or a limited partnership. The Type of additional income earner data: Organisation information is submitted to the Incomes Register if the income earner is a general partnership, limited partnership, limited liability company, cooperative, association, foundation, or some other legal person governed by civil law. If the income earner is a business operator or a self-employed person, such as a self-employed person working under a business name, Organisation data must not be used as a type of additional income earner data when reporting.

The share of value added tax included in the non-wage compensation for work is not reported to the Incomes Register. In other words, the amount paid VAT excluded is reported in the earnings payment report. The share of materials and supplies is not reported either if they have been itemised on the invoice,

Example 11: A limited partnership that is not registered in the prepayment register has invoiced EUR 12,000 for a renovation it has completed (incl. VAT EUR 2,322.58). In accordance with the decision of the Tax Administration, 13% tax must be withheld from an amount from which value added tax has first been deducted, or EUR 9,677.42. The employer's health insurance contribution does not need to be paid from the payment. The payer will report EUR 9,677.42 to the Incomes Register using the income type Non-wage compensation for work, and also reports the EUR 1,258.06 withheld using the income type Withholding tax.

Example 11.
Data to be reported EUR
Type of additional income earner data : Organisation
336 Non-wage compensation for work 9677.42
402 Withholding tax 1258.06

Example 12: A self-employed person working under a business name, who is not registered with the prepayment register, invoices the payer for EUR 6,200 for information system work performed. The invoice comprises EUR 4,500 for work, EUR 500 for additional computer components purchased and EUR 1,200 in VAT. The share of the components is itemised in the invoice. Because the income earner is not registered with the prepayment register, he has provided the payer with a tax card on which the withholding rate is 27%. The payer withholds tax from the share of the work (EUR 4,500). This means that the EUR 1,200 in VAT and the share of components, EUR 500, were first subtracted from the total amount of the invoice. The payer will report EUR 4,500 to the Incomes Register using the income type Non-wage compensation for work, and also reports the EUR 1,215 withheld using the income type Withholding tax. Because the income earner is a self-employed person working under a business name, the payer does not use Organisation data when reporting.

Example 12.
Data to be reported EUR

336 Non-wage compensation for work

4500.00

402 Withholding tax

1215.00

As a rule, social insurance contributions are not paid for non-wage compensation for work, with the exceptions described later in Section 3.1.2. By default, this income type is not subject to social insurance contributions.

If the income earner is a joint owner with the payer, i.e. involved in the company or participates in its operations through invested capital, report Type of additional income earner data: Joint owner with payer. This data is voluntarily submitted complementary data that can be used when the income earner alone owns at least 30% of the company's shares, or if a person working in a leading position in some other organisation possesses a comparable control of the organisation. This information does not need to be entered if the income earner is a shareholder in a listed company.

If the remuneration or other payment was paid as a non-wage compensation for work, no tax-exempt reimbursements of expenses can be paid to the recipient (with the exception of an athlete's and competition judge's fees; for more information, see Section 5.1.2, Athlete's fees and 5.11, Reimbursement paid by a non-profit organisation and public sector organisations to volunteers). Reimbursements of expenses related to non-wage compensation for work are added to the amount of income as a total sum with the other remuneration and then reported to the Incomes Register.

Reimbursements of expenses related to work cannot usually be deducted from the non-wage compensation for work before tax is withheld. The only exception is the reimbursement of travel expenses paid to natural persons with no Business ID.  Tax does not need to be withheld from this reimbursement of expenses if the grounds and amounts of the travel expenses are in accordance with the tax-exempt allowances for business travel laid down in the annual decision issued by the Tax Administration. These allowances are not tax-exempt either, so they are reported in the total amount of the non-wage compensation for work. Reimbursement of expenses is not reported using the income type Deduction before withholding (419).

Example 13: A person who is not registered in the prepayment register invoices EUR 1,488 from the service recipient. The payment comprises a fee of EUR 1,000, a kilometre allowance of EUR 200 and EUR 288 in VAT. The person has provided the service recipient with a tax card according to which the payer withholds 25% in tax from the fee of EUR 1,000. The reimbursement of expenses paid must be added to the amount of income. The payer will report EUR 1,200 to the Incomes Register using the income type Non-wage compensation for work, and also reports the EUR 250 withheld using the income type Withholding tax. The VAT share is not reported to the Incomes Register.

Example 13.
Data to be reported EUR
336 Non-wage compensation for work 1200.00
402 Withholding tax 250.00

Recipients of non-wage compensation for work can request that travel expenses be deducted in their taxation. However, if the recipient of non-wage compensation is a business operator or a self-employed person, they must deduct travel expenses in their accounting.

Non-wage compensation for work paid to a company with a limited tax liability must be reported, if the payer has collected tax at source from the payment. Non-wage compensation for work paid to a natural person with a limited tax liability must always be reported regardless of whether or not tax at source has been collected.

3.1.2 A payer subject to the public sector pensions act

A payer covered by the public sector pensions act (julkisten alojen eläkelaki 81/2016) must pay the employer's earnings-related pension insurance contribution based on a private person's commissioning agreement if the income earner is not insured in accordance with the self-employed persons' pensions act (yrittäjän eläkelaki 1272/2006). The data must then be reported to the Incomes Register, and it does not matter whether the income earner is registered with the prepayment register or not. The payer of the non-wage compensation for work collects the employee's earnings-related pension insurance contribution from the non-wage compensation for work. The employee's earnings-related pension insurance contribution is not reported to the Incomes Register at all. This is regardless of the entrepreneur not being registered in the prepayment register, and the non-wage compensation for work and the tax withheld from it being reported to the Incomes Register. The entrepreneur can report the collected earnings-related pension insurance contribution in his or her accounting, or request a deduction in his or her own taxation. The payer must specify the earnings-related pension provider code and pension policy number on the report.

Example 14: A person completes a consulting commission for a Ministry. The person does not have a YEL insurance due to the small number of commissions. The person is not registered in the prepayment register and has provided the payer with a tax card on which the withholding rate is 40%. The Ministry reports the non-wage compensation for work to the Incomes Register using the income type Non-wage compensation for work and the tax it withheld using the income type Withholding tax. The Ministry does not report the employee's earnings-related pension insurance contribution it collected from the person. 

Example 14.
Data to be reported EUR

Report/Income earner details:

Earnings-related pension insurance information: Employee's earnings-related pension insurance

Earnings-related pension provider code: NN

Pension policy number of earnings-related pension provider: NN-NNNNNNNT

336 Non-wage compensation for work 2500.00
402 Withholding tax 1000.00

Non-wage compensation for work must also be reported when a payer subject to the public sector pensions act (julkisten alojen eläkelaki 81/2016) pays non-wage compensation for work to a natural person who is registered in the prepayment register but is not insured in accordance with the self-employed persons’ pensions act (yrittäjän eläkelaki 1272/2006). The payer must also specify the earnings-related pension provider code and pension policy number on the report.In the case of a payer covered by the public sector pensions act (julkisten alojen eläkelaki 81/2016) who is under obligation to provide insurance for a non-wage compensation for work, the new type of additional income earner data Self-employed person, no obligation to take out YEL or MYEL insurance, introduced in the beginning of 2020, is not used in reporting – even if the person is not under obligation to take out insurance. The new additional data is not used when a non-wage compensation for work is paid.

Example 15: A person registered with the prepayment register performs painting work in the municipal day-care centre, commissioned by the municipality. The person does not have YEL insurance due to the small number of commissions. The person is not liable to pay VAT for his operations. The person invoices the municipality EUR 1,200 for his painting work.  In his invoice, he has itemised EUR 1,150 as the share of work and EUR 50 as the share of paint. Because the person is registered with the prepayment register, the municipality does not need to withhold tax from the payment. However, the municipality must report the work performance to the Incomes Register, because this person does not have his own YEL insurance. The municipality does not report the employee's earnings-related pension insurance contribution it collected from the person. The municipality thus reports only the share of the work subject to an earnings-related pension insurance (EUR 1,150) to the Incomes Register as follows:

Example 15.
Data to be reported EUR

Report/Income earner details:

Earnings-related pension insurance information: Employee's earnings-related pension insurance

Earnings-related pension provider code: NN

Pension policy number of earnings-related pension provider: NN-NNNNNNNT

336 Non-wage compensation for work 1150.00

For more information on insurance information, see the instructions Reporting data to the Incomes Register: insurance-related data.

If the payer pays the same income earner non-wage compensation for work that is income subject to the public sector pensions act (julkisten alojen eläkelaki 81/2016) and non-wage compensation that is not, the payer must submit two separate report records to the Incomes Register. Earnings payment reports submitted according to the public sector pensions act must include the following data on pension insurance:

  • Keva’s company identifier and pension policy number
  • suborganisation identifier in accordance with Keva codes
  • identifier in accordance with Keva’s occupational titles
  • Keva's grounds for registration
  • the start date of the employment relationship can be entered on the report as employment relationship information and the payment date can be entered as the end date.
  • the reason for the termination of employment is entered according to the reason for termination in Keva codes

If a payer subject to the public sector pensions act pays reimbursement of expenses in connection with non-wage compensation for work to a natural person who is not insured according to the self-employed persons’ pensions act and is not registered in the prepayment register, the reimbursements of expenses must be reported to the Incomes Register. In this case, the reimbursements of expenses must be reported on a separate earnings payment report and in a separate record using the Non-wage compensation for work (336) income type. No pension provider code, pension policy number or any other Keva information detailed above is entered in a report and record containing reimbursements of expenses. The share of reimbursement of expenses does not need to be reported if the recipient is registered in the prepayment register.

3.1.3 Dividends/profit surplus based on work effort (non-wage)

Dividend or profit surplus based on work effort can be wages or non-wage compensation for work, depending on whether or not the recipient is in an employment relationship with the payer company. This section discusses a situation where a dividend/profit surplus based on work effort is paid to a person who is not in an employment relationship with the payer company. The payment is non-wage compensation for work. If the payment is considered wages, it is reported to the Incomes Register using the income type Dividends/profit surplus based on work effort (wages) (339) (see Section 3.2.2).

The income type Dividends/profit surplus based on work effort (non-wage) (340) is used to report the dividend or profit surplus paid to an income earner as non-wage compensation for work, the distributive basis of which is the work effort of the recipient of the dividends or of a person within their sphere of interest. The data is also reported to the Incomes Register when the income earner is registered in the prepayment register.

The person on whose work effort the distribution of the dividends or profit surplus is based is reported to the Incomes Register as the recipient of the dividends/profit surplus based on work effort (name and personal identity code). This also applies to a situation where the actual recipient of the dividends or profit surplus is a holding company owned by the taxpayer. When the holding company further distributes the dividends to a shareholder, the holding company submits the annual information return 7812 for the dividends paid during the distribution. The dividends paid are not reported to the Incomes Register.

Tax is withheld from the dividends based on work effort (non-wage), unless the recipient is registered in the prepayment register. If tax has not been withheld from the dividends based on work effort because the recipient is a person other than the one in whose taxation the work effort dividends are deemed income, nothing is reported with the income type Withholding tax (402).

No social insurance contributions are paid from the payment.

3.2 Wages of a YEL/MYEL insured self-employed person

A self-employed person must report to the Incomes Register any wages he or she has withdrawn from his or her company, as well as information on the applicable earnings-related pension insurance.

  • Pension insurance for farmers (MYEL) is selected, if the income earner is insured in accordance with the farmers' pensions act (maatalousyrittäjän eläkelaki 1280/2006). Insurance under the farmers' pensions act is the earnings-related pension insurance for farmers, forest owners, fishers and reindeer breeders, and their family members. Scholarship recipients are also covered by earnings-related pension provision under MYEL.
  • Pension insurance for the self-employed (YEL) is selected if the income earner is insured in accordance with the self-employed persons' pensions act (yrittäjän eläkelaki 1272/2006). The insurance is mandatory when the self-employed person fulfils the requirements for being covered by the self-employed persons' pensions act. The insurance must be taken out within six months of the beginning of the period of self-employment.

Self-employed persons covered by the self-employed persons' pensions act (YEL) include:

  • a partner in a general partnership and a general partner in a limited partnership;
  • a shareholder in a limited liability company acting in a leadership position, individually holding over 30% of the company or its votes, and a shareholder who, together with family members, holds over 50% of the company or its votes. The calculation of the ownership share also takes account of indirect ownership via other organisations or conglomerates, if a person alone or together with family members owns over 50% of said other organisation or conglomerate, or has an equivalent dominant influence.

Additionally, the following information must be reported to the Incomes Register:

  • Type of exception to insurance: No obligation to provide insurance (earnings-related pension insurance)
  • Type of exception to insurance: No obligation to provide insurance (unemployment insurance)
  • Type of exception to insurance: No obligation to provide insurance (accident and occupational disease insurance)

If the information in question is not used to report the wages of the self-employed person, the social insurance contributions may be levied twice.

The self-employed person's earnings-related pension and health insurance contributions are determined based on the confirmed YEL or MYEL income from work. The YEL and MYEL income from work confirmed by the pension provider is the income on which earnings-related pension insurance and health insurance contributions are based, and replaces the wages received by the self-employed person as the basis for the earnings-related pension and health insurance contributions. Income from work data is not reported to the Incomes Register, but the wages received by the self-employed person are reported for taxation purposes. The employer's health insurance contribution is determined based on the wages paid.

Example 16: A shareholder working for his own company withdraws EUR 500 in wages. The person is the only shareholder in the company, and has taken out a mandatory insurance policy under the self-employed persons' pensions act.

Example 16.
Data to be reported

Income earner details

Earnings-related pension insurance information: Pension insurance for the self-employed (YEL)

Type of exception to insurance: No obligation to provide insurance (earnings-related pension insurance)

Type of exception to insurance: No obligation to provide insurance  (unemployment insurance)

Type of exception to insurance: No obligation to provide insurance (accident and occupational disease insurance)

Reporting method 1 EUR Reporting method 2 EUR
101 Total wages 500.00 201 Time-rate pay 500.00

If an income earner who is a self-employed person is not under obligation to take out insurance, enter Self-employed person, no obligation to take out YEL or MYEL insurance as Type of additional income earner data. The additional data is used on reports submitted for payments made after 1 January 2020. This data is submitted of an income earner who meets the requirements laid down in section 3 of the self-employed persons' pensions act (yrittäjän eläkelaki 1272/2006) but who is not under insurance obligation, pursuant to section 4 of the self-employed persons' pensions act.  This data is also submitted of an income earner who meets the requirements laid down in section 3 of the farmers' pensions act (maatalousyrittäjän eläkelaki 1280/2006), but is not under insurance obligation pursuant to said act. This situation can occur when, for example, the business is so small in scale that the self-employed person is not under obligation to take out YEL or MYEL insurance, or the self-employed person is younger or older than the age limits laid down in law. Section 3.3. includes examples on reporting these kinds of payments.

3.2.1 Partial owner

Partial owners of a company pay a lower employee's unemployment insurance contribution than employees. The concept of a partial owner is defined in the unemployment security act (työttömyysturvalaki 1290/2002). Information on partial ownership is submitted to the Incomes Register by reporting Type of additional income earner data: Partial owner.

A person's status as a partial owner or an employee of the company is affected by the ownership share, votes or other dominant influence of the person and their family members, as well as the person's position in the company or organisation.

If the income earner works for the company or organisation but is not in a leadership position, the income earner is a partial owner when one of the following conditions is fulfilled:

  • the income earner holds at least 50% of the share capital, votes or other means of control of the company or organisation in question
  • a member of the income earner’s family holds at least 50% of the share capital, votes or other means of control of the company or organisation in question (valid until 30 June 2019)
  • the income earner together with their family members holds at least 50% of the share capital, votes or other means of control of the company or organisation in question.

If the income earner works for the company or organisation in a leadership position but is not an entrepreneur, the income earner may be a partial owner when either of the following conditions is fulfilled:

  • the income earner holds at least 15% of the share capital, votes or other means of control
  • the income earner's family members or the income earner together with their family members hold at least 30% of the share capital, votes or other means of control (valid until 30 June 2019 with regard to family members).

Leadership position: managing director, chairman of the board of directors, member of the board or an equivalent position. A deputy board member is in a leadership position only if the member participates in board meetings regularly enough to be deemed to hold, in practice, the same decision-making power as actual board members.

Family member: spouse or common-law spouse and relatives in lineal ascent or lineal descent living in the same household (such as children, parents or grandparents).

Self-employed persons are not obligated to pay unemployment insurance contributions, and they are also not partial owners with respect to an unemployment insurance (see unemployment security act, chapter 1, section 6(1)). A person is deemed a self-employed person or a farmer if he or she fulfils the conditions laid down in the self-employed persons' pensions act (yrittäjän eläkelaki 1272/2006) or the farmers' pensions act (maatalousyrittäjän eläkelaki 1280/2006). 

The definition of Partial owner was changed on 1 July 2019

The definition of partial owner has chaged as of 1 July 2019. The change concerns a family member working for a company or organisation who does not hold ownership, votes or control in the company. Such family members are most commonly the entrepreneur’s spouse or children living at home. From 1 July 2019, such family members are considered employees, and the unemployment insurance contribution will be determined as an employee’s unemployment contribution.

Partial owner of a company or organisation from 1 July 2019:

If the income earner works for the company or organisation but is not in a leadership position, the income earner is a partial owner when either of the following conditions is fulfilled:

  • the income earner holds at least 50% of the share capital, votes or other means of control of the company or organisation in question
  • the income earner together with their family members holds at least 50% of the share capital, votes or other means of control of the company or organisation in question

If the income earner works in a company or organisation in a leadership position but is not an entrepreneur, the income earner may be a partial owner when either of the following conditions is fulfilled:

  • the income earner holds at least 15% of the share capital, votes or other means of control
  • the income earner together with their family members holds at least 30 % of the share capital, votes or other means of control.

For more information on partial ownership, see the Employment Fund website.

3.2.2 Dividends/profit surplus based on work effort (wages)

This income type is used to report dividends paid to a shareholder as wages, the distribution basis of which is the work effort of the recipient of the dividends or of a person in their sphere of interest.

The person on whose work effort the distribution of the dividends or profit surplus is based is reported to the Incomes Register as the recipient of the dividends/profit surplus based on work effort (name and personal identity code). This also applies to a situation where the actual recipient of the dividends or profit surplus is a holding company owned by the taxpayer. When the holding company further divides the dividends to a shareholder, the holding company submits the annual information return 7812 for the dividends paid during the distribution. The dividends paid are not reported to the Incomes Register.

Tax is withheld from dividends based on work effort. No earnings-related pension insurance, unemployment insurance or accident and occupational disease insurance contributions are paid from dividends paid to a company shareholder, even if the dividend is considered to be wages for taxation purposes, based on special regulations on dividends relating to work effort. The employer's health insurance contribution is paid from dividends based on work effort.

If tax has not been withheld from the dividends based on work effort because the recipient is a person other than the one in whose taxation the work effort dividends are deemed income, nothing is reported with the income type Withholding tax (402).

If the income earner is a YEL/MYEL-insured self-employed person, the insurance information described in Section 3.2 related to the wages of a YEL/MYEL-insured self-employed person must also be reported to the Incomes Register.

3.2.3 A shareholder’s wage receivables invested in the company

The wage receivables of a shareholder in a limited liability company and the reimbursement of expenses of a shareholder in a general partnership or a limited partnership, handled in payroll accounting and invested in the company as a private investment, are reported to the Incomes Register on an earnings payment report. A shareholder's wage receivables are reported using wage income types, and reimbursement of expenses using an income type appropriate for the reimbursement in question. The reporting obligation begins when the wage receivable or reimbursement of expenses is entered into the books as a private investment. The five-calendar-day deadline for reporting is counted from this moment. The payer will report the day on which the payment was entered into the books as the payment date.

3.3 Invoicing service

In recent years, several service providers have been established, so-called invoicing services who are committed to handling the invoicing, tax withholding and insurance contributions of their clients (performers of the work) for a fee. These companies use different names for the service they provide, such as an invoicing service, invoicing channel or remuneration service.

In an invoicing service, the performer of the work and the invoicing service company can specifically agree on the establishment of an employment relationship between them with respect to taxation. The amount paid to the invoicing service company by the party that commissioned the work is then non-wage compensation for work, and the payment made by the invoicing service company to the performer of the work is deemed wages from the perspective of the Tax Administration. The invoicing service company will then have normal employer obligations with respect to the Tax Administration, i.e. it must withhold taxes from the wages it pays and pay the employer's health insurance contribution.

However, from the perspective of earnings-related pension providers, unemployment insurance policies and accident and occupational disease insurance policies, it is not an employment relationship. From the perspective of the insurers, the work invoiced through an invoicing service company is performed as a self-employed person, and the work must be insured according to the self-employed persons' pensions act.

Reimbursements of travel expenses, decreed tax-exempt in the income tax act (tuloverolaki 1535/1992) and paid in addition to the agreed wages, are the only tax-exempt reimbursements of expenses. In an invoicing service, the common procedure is that the party who commissioned the work and the performer of the work agree on an overall payment that the commissioning party pays to the invoicing service company. The invoicing service company deducts its own fee and other expenses from the amount, and pays the rest to the performer of the work. Under this arrangement, travel expenses are not reimbursed in addition to the agreed wages, so they are not tax-exempt. Tax does not need to be withheld from reimbursements of travel expenses paid to a natural person (no Business ID), but they are still taxable income to the performer of the work. The travel expenses are reported to the Incomes Register using the income type Deduction before withholding (419). The performer of the work must request that the expenses be deducted in his or her taxation. The fee charged by an invoicing service company is not deemed to be an expense directly incurred in the performance of work referred to in section 15 of the tax prepayment act (ennakkoperintälaki 1118/1996) and cannot therefore be deducted before withholding tax. For more information, see the Guidelines Reporting data to the Incomes Register: fringe benefits and reimbursements of expenses, Section 2.5, Deduction before withholding.

Example 17: A person has performed work for a client worth EUR 350, invoiced by the invoicing service from the client. The person and the invoicing service have agreed that, from the perspective of taxation, the person is in an employment relationship with the invoicing service. The person has taken out YEL insurance, because the earnings-related pension provider has deemed that there is no employment relationship between the person and the invoicing service with respect to labour legislation. Based on the agreement between the invoicing service and the person, the invoicing service deducts its own fee and the employer's social insurance contributions from the EUR 350. The invoicing service pays EUR 350 in wages to the person. The pay also includes EUR 40 in travel expenses. Because an overall remuneration has been agreed, the invoicing service does not reimburse the travel expenses in addition to the wages; instead, the invoicing service deducts the amount of travel expenses before withholding tax. However, the travel expenses are taxable income of the recipient. The invoicing service reports the total amount of wages and travel expenses as the amount of wages. If a fee or social insurance contributions have been collected from the wages, the payer may voluntarily report them to the Incomes Register using the Other item deductible from net wage (408) income type.

Example 17.
Report / Income earner details

Earnings-related pension insurance information: Pension insurance for the self-employed (YEL)

Type of exception to insurance: No obligation to provide insurance (earnings-related pension insurance), No obligation to provide insurance(unemployment insurance), No obligation to provide insurance (accident and occupational disease insurance)

Reporting method 1 EUR Reporting method 2 EUR
101 Total wages 350.00 201 Time-rate pay 350.00
402 Withholding tax (from EUR 310) 31.00 402 Withholding tax (from EUR 310) 31.00
419 Deduction before withholding 40.00 419 Deduction before withholding 40.00

If the performer of the work and the client have agreed that reimbursements of travel expenses are paid in addition to invoiced remuneration, the invoicing service company will submit a report to the Incomes Register using the income types of tax-exempt travel expenses: Daily allowance, Meal allowance, Kilometre allowance (tax-exempt). This requires that the travel expenses are in accordance with the Tax Administration's decision on tax-exempt reimbursements of travel expenses. If reimbursements have been paid against the time and kilometre limits set by the decision of the Tax Administration, they are wages. For more information, see the Guidelines Reporting data to the Incomes Register: fringe benefits and reimbursements of expenses, Section 2 Reimbursement of expenses.

Example 18: A person has performed work for a client worth EUR 390, invoiced by the invoicing service from the client. The person has agreed with the client that the client will also be invoiced for the travel expenses in addition to the remuneration. A kilometre allowance of EUR 43 (100 km) is itemised on the invoice. The total amount on the invoice is EUR 433.

The person and the invoicing service have agreed that the person is in an employment relationship with the invoicing service. The amount of wages for the work has been agreed to be EUR 390. The person has taken out a YEL insurance, because the earnings-related pension provider has deemed that there was no employment relationship between the person and the invoicing service with respect to labour legislation. Based on the agreement made with the person, the invoicing service deducts its own fee and the employer's social insurance contributions from the wages of EUR 390 and pays the remaining amount to the person. The invoicing service reports EUR 390 in wages and EUR 43 in tax-exempt kilometre allowance. If a fee or social insurance contributions have been collected from the wages, the payer may voluntarily report them to the Incomes Register using the Other item deductible from net wage (408) income type.

Example 18.
Report / Income earner details

Earnings-related pension insurance information: Pension insurance for the self-employed (YEL)

Type of exception to insurance:

No obligation to provide insurance (earnings-related pension insurance)

No obligation to provide insurance (unemployment insurance)

No obligation to provide insurance (accident and occupational disease insurance)

Reporting method 1 EUR Reporting method 2 EUR
101 Total wages 390.00 201 Time-rate pay 390.00

311 Kilometre allowance (tax-exempt)

Number of kilometres: 100

43.00

311 Kilometre allowance (tax-exempt)

Number of kilometres: 100

43.00
402 Withholding tax (from EUR 390) 39.00 402 Withholding tax (from EUR 390) 39.00

If the person performing the work is not under obligation to take out insurance due to, for example, the small amount of business income or the person's age, the invoicing service company reports Self-employed person, no obligation to take out YEL or MYEL insurance as Type of additional income earner data. The data is reported when paying wages that would be subject to the employer's health insurance contribution in a normal situation. In these situations, the payer is not obligated to pay the employer's health insurance contribution from the income earner's wages, but the Tax Administration will impose a health care contribution of health insurance to the worker, based on the person's income. The payer reports Self-employed person, no obligation to take out YEL or MYEL insurance as the Type of additional income earner data, and also reports that there is no obligation to provide insurance (not even health insurance) with respect to the income earner's income. Because the income earner is a self-employed person, there is no obligation to provide insurance from the income with respect to earnings-related pension, unemployment, or accident and occupational disease insurance. No earnings-related pension insurance information is then specified.

Example 19: A person has performed work for a client worth EUR 200, invoiced by the invoicing service from the client. The person and the invoicing service have agreed that the person is in an employment relationship with the invoicing service from the perspective of taxation. The person's business operations are so small in scale that she is not under obligation to take out YEL insurance. The invoicing service reports the data to the Incomes Register as follows: 

Example 19.

Data to be reported

Report/Income earner details

Type of additional income earner data: Self-employed person, no obligation to take out YEL or MYEL insurance

Type of exception to insurance: No obligation to provide insurance (earnings-related pension, health, unemployment, or accident and occupational disease insurance)

Reporting method 1

EUR

Reporting method 2

EUR

101 Total wages

200.00

201 Time-rate pay

200.00

402 Withholding tax

30.00

402 Withholding tax

30.00

If the performer of the work and the invoicing service company have not made an agreement on an employment relationship, the amount paid to the performer of the work is non-wage compensation for work, see Section 3.1, Non-wage compensation for work. The invoicing service company must report the non-wage compensation for work at the time that the non-wage compensation for work can be withdrawn. If the performer of the work is registered in the prepayment register, the non-wage compensation for work need not be reported to the Incomes Register. For more information, see the Tax Administration's Guidelines Tax issues related to invoicing service companies and their users (in Finnish). The Type of additional income earner data Self-employed person, no obligation to take out YEL or MYEL insurance is not used when paying non-wage compensation for work.

The reporting of services and work performances ordered via various applications and platforms is described in Section 5.15.

4 Compensation for use

Compensation for use is compensation laid down in the tax prepayment act (ennakkoperintälaki 1118/1996), paid for the use, right of use or sale of the right of use of a copyright, photograph-related right or an industrial property right such as a patent or trademark.

The compensation for use can be taxable earned income or taxable capital income. If a copyright has been transferred as an inheritance or through a will, or it has been bought, the compensation received from its use is taxable capital income. Tax is withheld at the capital income rate. Otherwise, the compensation for use is taxable earned income, and tax is withheld in the same manner as from non-wage compensation for work. Tax is not withheld if the payment recipient is registered in the prepayment register.

The payer must report all compensations for use, from which tax has been withheld, to the Incomes Register. Compensation for use paid to natural persons must be reported, even if tax has not been withheld from it. Compensation for use paid to natural persons registered in the prepayment register must also be reported. Compensations for use paid to a general partnership, limited partnership, limited liability company, cooperative or joint venture must be reported to the Incomes Register if the recipient is not registered in the prepayment register. The data is reported to the Incomes Register using the income type Compensation for use, earned income (313). Type of additional income earner data: Organisation must also be reported.

No social insurance contributions are paid on compensation for use.

Compensation for use that is earned income is reported using the income type Compensation for use, earned income (313). Compensation for use that is capital income is reported using the income type Compensation for use, capital income (314). Any value added tax or reimbursement of expenses are not deducted from the amount of compensations for use reported.

Royalties paid to a non-resident taxpayer are reported using the Compensation for use, earned income (313) income type. If the royalty, i.e. compensation for use, was paid to a natural person who is a non-resident taxpayer, the data must be reported to the Incomes Register even if the income earner is registered in the prepayment register and no tax at source was collected from the payment. If no tax at source is collected from a royalty, the payer must then enter the amount of tax at source as EUR 0. 

The reimbursement of expenses related to compensations for use are included in the amounts of the income types Compensation for use, earned income (313) and Compensation for use, capital income (314), and they are not separately reported. This is because reimbursement of expenses paid by parties other than the employer is not tax-exempt.

Recipients of compensation for use can request that travel expenses be deducted in their taxation. However, business operators must deduct travel expenses in their accounting.

Reimbursement of expenses related to work cannot usually be deducted from compensation for use before tax is withheld. The only exception to this is the reimbursement of travel expenses paid to natural persons. Tax does not need to be withheld from this reimbursement if the grounds and amounts of the travel expenses are in accordance with the tax-exempt allowances for business travel laid down in the annual decision issued by the Tax Administration. These allowances are not tax-exempt either, so they are reported in the total amount of the compensation for use.

5 Other payments based on separate tasks

5.1 Athlete

5.1.1 Athlete's wages

Wages paid to an athlete mean wages paid for sports activities based on an athlete contract. An athlete contract is equivalent to an employment contract. The athlete's wages are typically wages paid to a member of a sports team based on a player contract. The amount of the wages does not include wages transferred to an athletes' special fund.

The athlete's statutory insurance premium is based on the athlete's wages in accordance with the act on athletes' accident and pension insurance (laki urheilijan tapaturma- ja eläketurvasta 276/2009). The act lays down provisions on the athlete's minimum level of earnings. Once this minimum level has been reached, the sports employer must take out accident and pension insurance for the athlete. An athlete's pension contribution is not paid for the same pension insurance as other wage earners. However, athlete's pension contributions collected from the athlete are also reported to the Incomes Register using the income type Employee's earnings-related pension insurance contribution (413), so that the payment data is relayed to taxation.

The income is subject to employer's health insurance contribution.

In addition, the following information must be reported to the Incomes Register:

  • Type of exception to insurance: No obligation to provide insurance (earnings-related pension insurance).
  • Type of exception to insurance: No obligation to provide insurance (unemployment insurance).

Type of additional income earner data: Athlete is reported for the wages paid to an athlete. Otherwise, the wages are reported using wage income types, such as the income types Total wages (101) or Time-rate pay (201). The wage income types are used to report only the wages directly paid to the athlete. If the payment is made into an athletes' special fund, see Section 5.1.3, Wages transferred to athletes' special fund.

In certain situations laid down in the law, the payer can deduct such costs from the athlete's wages before withholding that were paid by the athlete himself or herself and that were directly incurred from sports. Such a deduction made by the payer is reported using the Deduction before withholding (419) income type. The share of the deduction must also be included in the wages reported using a wage income type. The maximum amount of deduction that can be reported is the amount of the payment even if the expenses incurred by the athlete are greater than the wages.

If the payment is made from athletes' special fund, see Section 5.1.4, Wages paid from athletes' special fund.

Example 20: An athlete has been paid EUR 4,000 in wages. In addition to the monetary wages, the athlete has a full car benefit, age group A, which is EUR 450 in value. The athlete has been paid EUR 200 in daily allowances. The athlete has paid EUR 150 of direct costs incurred in sports activities (equipment). EUR 300 of pension insurance contributions have been collected from the athlete in accordance with the act on athletes' accident and pension insurance.

Example 20.
Report/Income earner details

Type of exception to insurance: No obligation to provide insurance (earnings-related pension insurance)

Type of exception to insurance: No obligation to provide insurance (unemployment insurance)

Type of additional income earner information: Athelete

Reporting method 1 EUR Reporting method 2 EUR
101 Total wages 4000.00 201 Time-rate pay 4000.00

304 Car benefit

Type of company car benefit: Full car benefit

Car age group: A

450.00

304 Car benefit

Type of company car benefit: Full car benefit

Car age group: A

450.00
331 Daily allowance

Type of daily allowance:

Domestic full daily allowance

200.00 331 Daily allowance

Type of daily allowance:

Domestic full daily allowance

200.00
402 Withholding tax 900.00 402 Withholding tax 900.00
413 Employee's pension insurance contribution 300.00 413 Employee's pension insurance contribution 300.00
419 Deduction before withholding 150.00 419 Deduction before withholding 150.00

5.1.2 Athlete's fees

Fees paid to athletes include competition prizes, fees based on advertising and sponsorship agreements, participation fees and other fees based on their status as an athlete, where the recipient is not in an employment relationship with the payer. Competition prizes received for a sporting performance are athlete's fees regardless of whether the athlete is an amateur or a professional. Competition prizes can be awarded on the basis of a sporting performance either directly or indirectly. Athlete's fees are typically paid to athletes involved in individual sports. Fees paid to an athlete that are not based on an employment relationship are payments treated in taxation in the same way as non-wage compensation for work. When reporting these fees to the Incomes Register, specify Type of additional income earner data: Athlete. Athlete's fees are reported using the income type Non-wage compensation for work (336).

Tax must always be withheld from an athlete's fee if the payment is made to a natural person. International situations are described in the Guidelines Reporting data to the Incomes Register: international situations.

Reimbursements of travel expenses paid to a recipient of athlete's fees have not been decreed to be tax-exempt (however, see Section 5.11, Reimbursement paid by a non-profit organisation). In taxation practice, however, it has been established that reimbursements of travel expenses paid to recipients of athlete's fees are accepted as tax-exempt on the same conditions as those of wage earners. If a kilometre allowance is paid to an athlete, the amount of tax-exempt kilometre allowance is reported using the income type Kilometre allowance (tax-exempt) (311). Also specify the Number of kilometres. For more information, see Sections 2.1.1, Kilometre allowance (tax-exempt), 2.1.3, Daily allowance, and 2.1.4, Meal allowance, of the Guidelines Reporting data to the Incomes Register: fringe benefits and reimbursements of expenses.

In certain situations laid down in the law, the payer can also deduct such costs from the athlete's fee before withholding that were paid by the athlete himself or herself and that were directly incurred from sports. Such a deduction made by the payer is reported using the Deduction before withholding (419) income type. The share of the deductions must also be included in the fee reported using the Non-wage compensation for work (336) income type. The maximum amount of deduction that can be reported is the amount of the payment even if the expenses incurred by the athlete are greater than the fee. 

If an athlete's fee is paid from an athletes' special fund, this is also reported using the income type Non-wage compensation for work (336) and by specifying Type of additional income earner data: Athlete. If an athlete withdraws funds from a training fund without receipts, the training fund will report the payment using the income type Non-wage compensation for work (336) and by specifying Type of additional income earner data: Athlete.

5.1.3 Wages transferred to athletes' special fund

An athlete can transfer his or her income from sports to a national training fund or athletes' special fund linked to a foundation appointed by the Ministry of Finance. The transfer to the athletes' special fund is intended to secure the athlete's post-career livelihood.

Income from sports can comprise the athlete's wages or fees. The income type Wages transferred to athletes' special fund (350) is used to report to the Incomes Register only the wages transferred to the fund. Additionally, specify Type of additional income earner data: Athlete. If an athlete's fee is transferred to the athletes' special fund, this is not reported to the Incomes Register.

The employer's health insurance contribution is paid from the athlete's wages transferred to the fund. The athlete does not pay tax for the income until the income is paid out from the fund. Tax is not withheld from the funded wages until the wages are paid to the athlete from the fund.

The funding of income from sports does not affect the payment of the insurance premiums specified in the act on athletes' accident and pension insurance.

5.1.4 Withdrawals from athletes' special fund

The fund withholds tax from the athlete's wages and fees withdrawn from the athletes' special fund when the athlete makes a withdrawal.

Items withdrawn from the fund must be itemised into wages and fees, because they are subject to different deductions in taxation. The income type Wages paid from athletes' special fund (351) is only used to report to the Incomes Register the wages paid from the fund. An athlete's fee paid from the fund is reported using the income type Non-wage compensation for work (336). All payments must also include Type of additional income earner data: Athlete.

Tax is withheld from the funded wages and the employee's health insurance daily allowance contribution is paid when wages are paid to the athlete from the fund. The employer's health insurance contribution is paid when the income is transferred to the athletes' special fund.

5.1.5 Training fund

Athlete's fees can be transferred to a training fund. During a tax year, tax-exempt funds can be drawn from the fund against a receipt to cover sports and training expenses. Such withdrawals are not reported to the Incomes Register.

The part of funds in a training fund during a certain tax year not used during the same tax year is deemed to be the recipient's income for the tax year. The part exceeding EUR 20,000 of income is taxable (act on income tax (Tuloverolaki 1535/1992), section 116 b)). This taxable share is reported to the Incomes Register using the income type Non-wage compensation for work (336), also specifying the Type of additional income earner data: Athlete. Similarly, the taxable payments drawn during the tax year are also reported.

According to a decision by the Tax Administration, the training fund must report the tax-exempt training costs paid to athletes during the year. These mean tax-exempt reimbursements of travel expenses paid from the training fund against a travel invoice, reported to the Incomes Register in the manner described in Section 5.1.2, Athlete's fees.

Funds can also be transferred from the training fund to the athletes' special fund. These transfers are not reported to the Incomes Register. The reporting of an athlete's fee drawn from the athletes' special fund is described in Section 5.1.4, Withdrawals from athletes' special fund.

An athlete can draw funds from the training fund based on the wages he or she pays to a trainer or on a non-wage compensation for work (invoice). The training fund does not report these payments to the Incomes Register; instead, the athlete submits the report, because he or she acts as the trainer's employer (wages) or service recipient (non-wage compensation for work).

5.2 Performing artist

Performing artists include stage and film actors, radio and television performers, and musicians.

When payments made to a performing artist for work in this role are reported to the Incomes Register, also specify Type of additional income earner data: Performing artist.

If the payment of a performing artist's remuneration is based on an employment relationship, and the remuneration is related to duties agreed in the employment contract, such remuneration is treated as wages, i.e., tax is withheld and social insurance contributions are paid from it. The income is reported using wage income types, for example Total wages (101) or Contract pay (227).

If a performing artist performs based on a commission relationship, the remuneration paid to the artist is reported using the income type Non-wage compensation for work (336). Tax must be withheld from such compensation, if the recipient is not registered in the prepayment register. No social insurance contributions are paid from the income unless the payer is a public sector payer and the income earner is not insured in accordance with the self-employed persons' pensions act. For more information, see Section 3.1, Non-wage compensation for work. Non-wage compensation for work, paid to a performing artist, is not reported to the Incomes Register if the income earner is registered in the prepayment register.

5.3 Compensation for the Managing Director and for membership of a governing body

Compensation paid for work performed in an employment relationship is deemed wages. Additionally, certain payments listed in the tax prepayment act (ennakkoperintälaki 1118/1996) are deemed wages even if an employment relationship is not established:

  • meeting fee
  • personal lecture and presentation fee
  • compensation for membership of a governing body
  • Managing Director's compensation
  • wages drawn by a partner in a general or limited partnership
  • compensation for acting in a position of trust.

In addition to monetary wages, the payer can grant fringe benefits deemed wages to the Managing Director and a member of a governing body (such as company car, meal and telephone benefit) and pay tax-exempt reimbursement of travel expenses.

Social insurance contributions must be paid from the Managing Director's compensation. The compensation is reported to the Incomes Register either using the income type Total wages (101) (reporting method 1) or one of the income types of reporting method 2, for example the income type Time-rate pay (201).

Compensation paid for membership of a governing body is reported to the Incomes Register using the income type Compensation for membership of a governing body (308). The default for this income type is that the compensation for membership of a governing body is not subject to social insurance contributions.

If the employee's earnings-related pension insurance contribution does not need to be paid from the compensation under the employment pension act applicable to the member of a governing body, neither are other social insurance contributions paid from the compensation. If the recipient of the compensation is in an employment relationship with the payer, the compensation paid is subject to social insurance contributions. In such a situation, the payer reports the insurance information using the separate Insurance information type entry, specifying Subject to social insurance contributions: Yes. If voluntary earnings-related pension insurance has been taken out for a member of a governing body, no other social insurance contributions need to be paid. In such a case, the Insurance information type entry is reported as Subject to earnings-related pension insurance contribution: Yes.

If compensation for membership of a governing body is paid by a public sector organisation, the earnings-related pension insurance contribution and the employer's health insurance contribution are paid. In such a situation, the payer reports the insurance information using the separate Insurance information type entry, specifying Subject to health insurance contribution: Yes and Subject to earnings-related pension insurance contribution: Yes.

5.4 Family day care provider's wages and reimbursement of expenses

The wages paid to a family day care provider are reported to the Incomes Register in the same way as any other wages. The income type Time-rate pay (201) can be used, for example, if the wages are paid based on time used (such as a monthly salary). The entire amount of the monetary wages is reported as the wages, and no deductions are made from it before tax withholding.

The income type Reimbursement of family day care provider's expenses (329) is used to report the taxable reimbursement to the Incomes Register of expenses paid to a family day care provider in an employment relationship to cover the direct expenses incurred by childminding. The reimbursement of expenses paid to a family arranging three-family day care is also reported using the income type Reimbursement of family day care provider's expenses (329). Reimbursed expenses include, for example, expenses incurred from meals. Each year, the Association of Finnish Local and Regional Authorities issues a recommendation on the reimbursement of family day care providers' expenses to municipalities. 

Tax is not withheld from the reimbursement of expenses paid to a family day care provider, and no social insurance contributions are paid either.

5.5 Private caretaker's fee and reimbursement of expenses

A municipality uses the income type Private caretaker's fee (328) to report to the Incomes Register the fee paid to a private caretaker for arranging treatment, upbringing or other around-the-clock care in the caretaker's private home or in the home of the person cared for.

The private caretaker's fee is based on a commissioning contract between the municipality and the private caretaker. An earnings-related pension insurance contribution is paid from the private caretaker's fee, but no other social insurance contributions are paid. However, the municipality must insure the carer for accidents in such work. Provisions on a private caretaker's accident insurance are laid down in the separate legislation on private caretakers.

If the private caretaker is not registered in the prepayment register, the municipality must report the private caretaker's fee to the Incomes Register using the Private caretaker's fee (328) income type. In addition, the municipality must report the employee's pension insurance contributions collected from the private caretaker using the Employee's earnings-related pension insurance contribution (413) income type. If the private caretaker is registered in the prepayment register but is not insured in accordance with the self-employed persons’ pensions act (yrittäjän eläkelaki 1272/2006), the municipality does not report the earnings-related pension insurance contribution it has collected to the Incomes Register.

The private caretaker's fee is handled as non-wage compensation for work from which tax is withheld, if the recipient of the fee is not registered in the prepayment register.

The income type Reimbursement of private caretaker's  (327) is used to report to the Incomes Register the taxable reimbursement of expenses paid to a private caretaker to cover the expenses incurred by the care and upkeep of foster home care patients. Reimbursement of a private caretaker's expenses is based on a commissioning contract between the municipality and the private caretaker. Such reimbursement covers items such as meal, accommodation and health care expenses, as well as start-up expenses.

While tax is withheld from the reimbursement of expenses, no social insurance contributions are paid.

Reimbursements of travel expenses based on a travel invoice paid in connection with the private caretaker's fee are not tax-exempt. The payer does not need to withhold tax from reimbursement of travel expenses, however, if the grounds and amounts of the reimbursements are in accordance with the tax-exempt allowances for business travel laid down in the annual decision issued by the Tax Administration. If the private caretaker is not registered in the prepayment register and is not insured in accordance with the self-employed persons’ pensions act (yrittäjän eläkelaki 1272/2006), the municipality must report such reimbursements of travel expenses to the Incomes Register that the municipality pays separately based on a travel invoice in connection with the private caretaker’s fee. In this case, the reimbursements of travel expenses must be reported on a separate earnings payment report and in a separate record using the Private caretaker's fee (328) income type, and the pension provider code and pension policy number are not entered in the report or record. The share of reimbursement of expenses does not need to be reported if the recipient is registered in the prepayment register.

5.6 Kinship carer's fee

The income type Kinship carer's fee (319) is used to report to the Incomes Register a fee paid by the municipality to a kinship carer for arranging treatment and care for an elderly, disabled or ill person at home. The kinship carer's fee is based on a commissioning contract between the municipality and the kinship carer, and its amount is determined by how binding and demanding the care is.

The kinship carer's fee is handled as non-wage compensation for work from which tax is withheld if the recipient of the fee is not registered in the prepayment register. The kinship carer's fee must be reported to the Incomes Register if the income earner is not registered with the prepayment register. The employee's pension insurance contributions collected from the kinship carer are then reported using income type Employee's earnings-related pension insurance contribution (413).

The fee is also reported when the income earner is registered with the prepayment register but does not have insurance under the self-employed persons' or farmers' pensions acts. In these situations, the municipality does not report the collected employee's earnings-related pension insurance contribution to the Incomes Register, but the earnings-related pension provider's company ID and pension policy number must be entered into the report.

An earnings-related pension insurance contribution is paid from the kinship carer's fee, but other social insurance contributions are not. However, the municipality must insure the carer for accidents during such work, under the special law applied.

5.7 Lay helper

Lay helper activities can be voluntary work for which a fee, reimbursement of expenses, or both can be paid. The purpose of the lay helper is to support the growth and development of a child. The lay helper can also provide support to the entire family. A fee paid to a lay helper for voluntary work is reported to the Incomes Register using the income type Non-wage compensation for work (336). For the reimbursement of expenses related to the fee, see Section 3.1.1, Reimbursement of expenses related to non-wage compensation for work.

5.8 Elected official fee

The Elected official fee (403) income type is used to report, to the Incomes Register, a payment collected from the meeting fees of elected municipal officials to be paid to political parties. The elected official fee may only be reported by municipalities and joint municipal authorities.

The remuneration paid to a person in a position of trust is reported using the Meeting fee (210), Compensation for acting in position of trust (215) or Total wages (101) income types, depending on the grounds of the payment.

If the income earner acting in a position of trust has paid the elected official fee directly to a political party, the fee is not reported to the Incomes Register. The political party reports the fee straight to the Tax Administration.

Compensation for acting in a position of trust is not reported if it has been collected for a position other than a municipal position of trust, such as a membership of a board of directors of a limited liability company or another civil law corporation.

5.9 Reimbursement of costs, paid to conciliator

The income type Reimbursement of costs, paid to conciliator (335) is used to report to the Incomes Register a taxable reimbursement of costs paid to a voluntary conciliator to cover the costs incurred from the conciliation process. Conciliator means a conciliator as defined by the Act on Conciliation in Criminal and Certain Civil Cases.

No tax is withheld or social insurance contributions are paid from the reimbursement of costs.

5.10 Allowance to witness

An allowance to witness is paid for appearing in court as a witness. The allowance is a non-wage compensation for work, unless an agreement has been made to pay it as wages. Tax is withheld from such compensation if the recipient is not registered in the prepayment register. No other social insurance contributions are paid. The allowance to witness is reported to the Incomes Register using the income type Non-wage compensation for work (336); for more information, see Section 3.1, Non-wage compensation for work.

The reimbursements of expenses paid in connection with non-wage compensations for work are taxable. No tax is withheld or social insurance contributions are paid from these compensations. The reporting of the compensations to the Incomes Register is described in Section 3.1.1, Reimbursements of expenses related to non-wage compensation for work. Reimbursements for the costs of taking evidence, paid from State funds, are tax-exempt. They are not reported to the Incomes Register.

If an allowance to witness is paid as wages, it is reported to the Incomes Register using, for example, the income type Total wages (101).

5.11 Reimbursement paid by a non-profit organisation and public sector organisation to volunteers

Non-profit organisations include labour market organisations, youth associations, sports clubs, and organisations supporting science and arts. For more information on the definition of a non-profit organisation, see the Tax guide for non-profit organisations (in Finnish). 

A non-profit organisation can pay certain compensations to a person who volunteers for unpaid work without an employment relationship. The organisation can pay a tax-exempt kilometre allowance equivalent to commuting for the use of a car that is owned by the person or is in his or her possession, and a domestic full or partial daily allowance or an international daily allowance. However, a meal allowance is not tax-exempt. For the reimbursement of travel expenses to be tax-exempt, the requirement is that the trip was made for the benefit of the organisation at its commission and it was properly agreed in advance. For example, an instructor's trips on training locations, representative missions to congresses, trips to pick up goods for a sale and an athlete's competition and training trips can entitle a person to a tax-exempt reimbursement. The reimbursed trip can begin from the recipient's home. Membership of the organisation is not a requirement for payment.

As of 2019, it has also been possible for public sector organisations to pay tax-exempt reimbursements for travel expenses to volunteers. Public sector organisations include the state, municipalities and parishes. The volunteer work must be voluntary and free of remuneration. The work performed by volunteers must directly benefit the appropriate non-profit or social activities of the organisation, and the volunteers may not perform work against wages or any other compensation.

There are limits to tax-exempt reimbursements: in one calendar year, one person may receive a tax-exempt daily allowance for no more than twenty days and a tax-exempt kilometre allowance of no more than EUR 3,000. These limitations do not apply to reimbursements of accommodation expenses or travelling on public transport. The grounds for paying the daily allowance and the kilometre allowance are determined according to the annual decision of the Tax Administration on the tax-exempt reimbursements of travel expenses.

Tax-exempt reimbursements of travel expenses can be paid to recipients of an athlete's or competition judge's fees based on the above-mentioned grounds and limitations, even if they also receive a separate fee as a non-wage compensation for work. The competition or event must be related to the activities of the non-profit organisation.

The payer only keeps track of the amounts it has paid. It cannot know the reimbursements possibly paid by other non-profit organisations. If a non-profit organisation or a public sector organisation pays more reimbursements of travel expenses than decreed in the income tax act (tuloverolaki 1535/1992) or on grounds more lenient than those subject to the decision of the Tax Administration, the excess part is reported as non-wage compensation for work. However, no tax is withheld from this amount if the recipient is a natural person.

Social insurance contributions are not paid for tax-exempt or taxable reimbursements.

5.11.1 Reporting expenses and fees paid to volunteers

The amount of tax-exempt kilometre allowances paid by a non-profit organisation or public sector organisation is reported to the Incomes Register using the income type Kilometre allowance paid by non-profit organisation (357). Kilometre allowances paid to competition judges and recipients of athlete's fees can also be reported using this income type up to the tax-exempt limit. The number of kilometres is not reported. If the volunteer worker made the trip on public transport, the reimbursement paid is not reported to the Incomes Register. However, if the volunteer worker made the trip in a vehicle s/he owns or has in his/her possession, but is reimbursed for the travel in an amount lower than actual expenses – for example, as based on the price of a public transport ticket – the payment must be reported to the Incomes Register using the income type Kilometre allowance paid by non-profit organisation (357).

The amount of tax-exempt daily allowances paid by a non-profit organisation or public sector organisation is reported to the Incomes Register using the income type Daily allowance paid by non-profit organisation (358). Daily allowances paid to competition judges and recipients of athlete's fees can also be reported using this income type up to the tax-exempt limit.

The taxable amount exceeding the tax-exempt kilometre allowance or daily allowance paid by a non-profit organisation or public sector organisation is reported to the Incomes Register as non-wage compensation for work using the income type Non-wage compensation for work (336).

Telephone expenses and other similar taxable reimbursements of expenses paid by a non-profit organisation or public sector organisation to volunteers are reported using the income type Taxable reimbursements of expenses (353) and the tax withheld is reported using the income type Withholding tax (402). Income earners can request that expenses be deducted in their taxation.

Training wear, other similar equipment and benefits paid by a non-profit organisation to its members are reported using the income type Other taxable income (316).

Additionally, a non-profit organisation or public sector organisation can pay reimbursements for travel expenses to volunteers against a receipt from a transport operator. These reimbursements are not reported to the Incomes Register.

Example 21: As agreed in advance, a non-profit organisation paid EUR 150 of tax-exempt kilometre allowances to its voluntary instructor for running children's exercise sessions. The instructor also represented the organisation at a general assembly, with the organisation paying one tax-exempt daily allowance and one partial daily allowance (totalling EUR 63) for the trip, as well as train tickets and accommodation in a hotel. The organisation reports the kilometre allowance and the daily allowances to the Incomes Register. The public transport ticket and reimbursement of accommodation expenses are not reported.In addition, the voluntary instructor received a reimbursement of EUR 35 for the use of their own phone. The volunteer’s withholding rate is 20%. 

Example 21.
Separately reported income types EUR
353 Taxable reimbursement of expenses 35.00
357 Kilometre allowance paid by non-profit organisation 150.00
358 Daily allowance paid by non-profit organisation 63.00
402 Withholding tax (from EUR 35) 7.00

Example 22: Early in the year, a sports club has paid EUR 2,800 of tax-exempt kilometre allowances to an athlete representing the club. These have already been reported to the Incomes Register. In November, EUR 600 more in kilometre allowance is paid to the same athlete for a competition trip.

In November, the sports club reports EUR 200 using the income type Kilometre allowance paid by non-profit organisation (357) and the taxable part exceeding EUR 3,000, EUR 400, using the income type Non-wage compensation for work (336).

Example 18.
Separately reported income types EUR
357 Kilometre allowance paid by non-profit organisation 200.00
336 Non-wage compensation for work 400.00

Meeting fees paid by a non-profit organisation to its members are reported to the Incomes Register using the Meeting fee (210) or Total wages (101) income type.

If a recipient of a kilometre allowance or a daily allowance is in an employment relationship with a non-profit organisation, or is otherwise paid wages, e.g. meeting fees or other taxable remuneration by the organisation, the kilometre allowance and daily allowance are reported in connection with the payments in question according to the relevant instructions (Reporting data to the Incomes Register: fringe benefits and reimbursements of expenses, Section 2.1, Tax-exempt reimbursement of travel expenses paid to an employee).

For the reimbursement of travel expenses and other expenses, like telephone expenses, paid by a non-profit organisation, see the Tax Administration's Guidelines Prepayment questions for the volunteering of non-profit organisations and public sector organisations (in Finnish).

5.12 Lump sum payment made by a registered association

Due to a change coming into effect at the beginning of 2020, a registered association can report lump sum payments of no more than EUR 200 to the Incomes Register monthly, no later than on the fifth day of the following calendar month. The lump sum can include, for example, wages, non-wage compensations for work or reimbursements of expenses. All various items such as fees and reimbursements of expenses paid at the same time to the income earner are included in the amount of the lump sum payment.

A lump sum payment means a random individual income item that will be paid only once according to the information available at the time of payment. Income can be a lump sum payment even if it is paid again later, if there was no information on the new payment at the time of payment based on an agreement, commitment or decision.  If a payment is made at regular intervals, it is not a lump sum payment, even if the payments are made infrequently.

Example 23: A sports club pays a fee of EUR 180 to a junior ice hockey referee on 3 February for three different matches. The agreement made with the referee only covered these three matches. This is a lump sum payment, and the income must be reported to the Incomes Register no later than on 5 March.

Example 24: A sports club pays a fee of EUR 120 to another junior ice hockey referee on 3 February for two different matches. An agreement covering the entire season has been made with the referee on acting as a referee in matches arranged by the association in question. This is not a lump sum payment, and the income must be reported to the Incomes Register no later than on 8 February.

Example 25: An association pays a lump sum of EUR 220 to a volunteer on 20 November. Because the payment exceeds the maximum amount for a lump sum laid down in the law (EUR 200), the data must be reported to the Incomes Register within five calendar days, i.e. no later than 25 November.

Example 26: The executive manager of an association is paid a meeting fee of EUR 100 each month. The data must be reported within five calendar days, because this is not a lump sum payment. 

Although the reporting deadline has been extended, the data on a lump sum payment must be reported to the Incomes Register separately for each payment date. Thus, if two payments have been made on different days of the same month, separate reports must be submitted to the Incomes Register for both payments.

Example 27: An association pays a EUR 100 fee on 10 November. There is no information on any future payments. At the end of the month, on 29 November, the person is paid EUR 150 more. The data must be reported no later than on 5 December on two separate reports: EUR 100 is reported for the payment date 10 November and EUR 150 for the payment date 29 November.

5.13 Voluntary perquisite

Voluntary perquisites include perquisites paid to waiters or restaurant doormen (tip, extra) by their customers.

If the perquisite is based on work performed in an employment relationship, the employer reports the perquisite to the Incomes Register using the income type Total wages (101) or, for example, the income type Other compensation (216). The employer does not need to withhold tax from the income, because the income is subject to pre-assessment. However, the employer must pay the employer's social insurance contributions.

If the recipient of the perquisite is not in an employment relationship and is not registered in the prepayment register, the service recipient reports the voluntary perquisites to the Incomes Register using the income type Non-wage compensation for work (336) and the amount of tax withheld using the income type Withholding  (402). A payment made to someone registered in the prepayment register is not reported to the Incomes Register.

5.14 Competition prizes and other taxable earned income

The obligation to report a competition prize to the Incomes Register depends on the value of the prize and the type of income the prize is deemed to be. A competition prize does not need to be reported to the Incomes Register if the recipient of the prize is not in an employment relationship with the giver of the prize, and the value of the prize is no more than EUR 100. This limit applies to both monetary prizes and prize objects. The value of competition prizes awarded as goods is estimated according to their fair value. The value of the prize is the amount that could be received for the goods if they were sold immediately.

If an employer gives a prize to its employee and the prize is related to an employment relationship, it is deemed to be wages and must always be reported to the Incomes Register. The prize is reported using, for example, income type Other compensation (216) if it was awarded as money, or income type Other fringe benefit (317) if it was a non-monetary prize.

If the recipient of a competition prize is not in an employment relationship with the giver of the prize but the value of the prize exceeds EUR 100, it is reported to the Incomes Register using income type Other taxable income deemed earned income (316). If this kind of a prize is a non-wage compensation for work or a compensation for use, use income types Non-wage compensation for work (336) and Compensation for use, earned income (313).

Example 28: A person wins a monetary prize of EUR 150 from a quiz. Because the prize won by the person exceeds the euro limit laid down in law (EUR 100), the prize must be reported to the Incomes Register. The quiz organiser reports the entire prize amount. The report must be submitted within five days of the payment date. 

Example 29: A dog enthusiast and her dog win a EUR 75 food sack in an agility competition. The competition organiser does not need to report the reward to the Incomes Register.

Example 30: A hobbyist golfer wins a EUR 90 gift voucher in a golf competition. The competition organiser does not need to report the reward to the Incomes Register.

Example 31: A person places second in an ice-fishing competition and wins a EUR 990 quad bike as a prize. The competition organiser must report the prize to the Incomes Register. Because the prize was non-monetary, it must be reported no later than on the fifth day of the month following the month during which the prize was awarded.

If the same person wins several prizes in one competition, the reporting obligation is determined as based on the total amount of the prizes.

Example 32: The same competitor wins the long jump and triple jump competitions during the same event and receives EUR 65 gift vouchers for both. The competition organiser does not need to report the prizes to the Incomes Register, because they were not from the same competition.

Example 33: A competitor wins the first prize worth EUR 80 and the audience prize worth EUR 50 in a competition. Because the prizes were from the same competition and the value of the prizes (EUR 130) exceeds the reporting limit (EUR 100), the competition organiser must report the prizes to the Incomes Register. 

When the prize is awarded to a team, the reporting obligation is determined as based on the player or member specific value of the prize.

Example 34: A ten-person rowing team collectively wins a EUR 300 monetary prize in a rowing competition. The competition organiser does not need to report the prizes to the Incomes Register, because the recipient-specific value of the prize is EUR 30 (EUR 300/10).

Even if the competition organiser is not obligated to report a prize to the Incomes Register, the prize can still be taxable income for its recipient. A competition prize is taxable income for its recipient if either of the following conditions is fulfilled.

  • the competition prize is deemed to be wages, non-wage compensation for work or compensation for use referred to in the tax prepayment act (ennakkoperintälaki 1118/1996), or
  • the same person wins several prizes during the same year with a total value exceeding EUR 100.

If the value of competition prizes exceeds EUR 100 during the tax year, the prizes are taxable income for their recipient in their entirety. Thus, a competition prize worth EUR 500, for example, is taxable income for its recipient in its full amount, not just the part exceeding EUR 100. In such a situation, the income earner him/herself must report the income for his/her taxation, as well as to other data users needing the data. 

Reporting taxable competition prizes applies to competitions where a separate competition organiser gives the prize to the winner. This means that prizes given in competitions between friends do not need to be reported.

In its own instructions, the Tax Administration has stated that symbolic objects with insignificant trade value such as trophies, medals, pennants, bags of candy, coffee packets, or minor prize objects such as caps given with a promotional purpose are not deemed to be taxable competition prizes. Tax-exempt competition prizes are not reported to the Incomes Register.

A payment reported using income type Other taxable income deemed earned income (316) is subject to withholding but not to social insurance contributions. From the perspective of reporting, it does not matter whether or not tax was withheld from the income. Tax cannot be withheld from a prize object.

In addition to competition prizes, the income type Other taxable income deemed earned income (316) is used to report other taxable occasional remunerations when the recipient is not in an employment relationship with the giver, and the payment is not non-wage compensation for work or compensation for use. These include, for example, a benefit granted to a member of a customer company's personnel or otherwise based on a customer relationship (e.g. a trip, gift voucher or object), a finder's fee, and a so-called vigilance fee paid by a bank.

It must also be taken into consideration that the EUR 100 reporting limit only applies to competition prizes. Other taxable payments do not have a lower euro limit. For example, a finder's fee must therefore be reported, even if it is less than EUR 100.

5.15 Services ordered via a platform (so-called platform economy)

Services can be offered or ordered via various mobile applications and online platforms. The services can involve any kind of work, such as renovation work, cleaning services, pet grooming or walking, making deliveries for various restaurants, or organising experiences for tourists. For more information on this subject, see the Tax Administration's website.

Employment services and ordering of services via applications and platforms may involve various responsibilities applying to the worker, the application maintainer, or the client, i.e., the party who purchases a service or commissions work via an application or a platform. Some applications and platforms may mostly act as electronic bulletin boards, meaning that the worker and the client must agree on the terms and conditions of the work between them. Some applications and platforms, however, function so that an employment relationship is automatically formed between the worker and the client, but the platform handles the payment traffic. An employment relationship can also be formed between the worker and the platform. The obligation to report the payments to the Incomes Register depends on what has been agreed between the application or platform, the worker and the client. 

If an employment or a commission relationship is formed between the client and the worker, the client must report the payments they make to the Incomes Register either as wages or non-wage compensation for work, depending on what has been agreed. Non-wage compensation for work must be reported if the payment recipient is not registered with the prepayment register. The date on which the client made the payment to the platform or other application is entered as the payment date.

Example 35: Peter offers dog-walking services via a platform. A pet owner makes a reservation and enters her payment details to the platform. The EUR 100 fee is taken from the pet owner's account when Peter has confirmed that he accepts the job offer. After Peter has completed the work, the platform pays Peter a fee of EUR 80 and deducts the platform fee, EUR 20, from the payment. The platform only acts as an employment agency between Peter and the pet owner. Peter is in a commission relationship with the pet owner. Because Peter is not registered with the prepayment register, the pet owner must report the paid non-wage compensation for work to the Incomes Register. The pet owner reports the entire EUR 100 payment on an earnings payment report, specifies Peter as the income earner and enters the day when she herself made the payment to the platform as the payment date. Because the payer is a household, the data must be reported on an earnings payment report no later than on the fifth day of the month following the payment date. In his own taxation, Peter can request the platform fee, EUR 20, to be deducted as expenses for the production of income.

Example 36. Mary has registered as a user of a mobile application and uses it to look for work. A client chooses Mary for house cleaning work. Mary and the owner of the mobile application have agreed that Mary is in an employment relationship with the owner of the application, who invoices the client for a fee and pays wages to Mary after the client has paid for the work ordered via the application. The owner of the application takes care of paying both Mary's wages and the employer obligations. The owner of the mobile application withholds tax from the wages based on a tax card and pays the social insurance contributions. The owner of the mobile application reports the data on Mary's wages to the Incomes Register no later than on the fifth calendar day from the payment. You can also find more information on reporting in Section 3.3. Invoicing service.