6U Tax return of business activities – Foreign corporate entity 2017

Guidance on how to fill out the form 

Tax year 2017

  • When you complete the tax return and its enclosures, you must fill in the spaces and lines completely when they concern you.
  • Enter all amounts of money with the cents included, do not round them out to the nearest euro.
  • If your company has more than one accounting periods ending in the 2017 calendar year, you must complete a set of tax return forms for each closing of an accounting period. We combine them into an aggregate whole that concerns the 2017 taxable year.
  • See the list of enclosure forms
Further information will be given by 

Enter the name and phone number of a person who can provide further information to the Tax Administration.

Changes in the line of activities 

 

Tick the box if your line of business has changed.

Please enter the necessary corrections referring to the TOL 2008 classification of industry sectors.

  • Visit the website of Statistics Finland to see sector categories at tilastokeskus.fi/index_en.html
Changes in the line of activities

Check the pre-populated information on the form regarding your line of business activities.  Tick box 175 if your line of business has changed.

If the pre-populated information is not the same as your actual line, please enter the necessary corrections referring to the TOL 2008 classification of business sectors.

Visit the website of Statistics Finland to see sector categories at tilastokeskus.fi/index_en.html.

Has activity in Finland (mainland) and Åland Islands

Tick the box as appropriate.

Also tick it if your company only operates in Åland but its registered domicile is in Finnish mainland, or vice versa, is registered in Åland but operates in Finnish mainland.

Enclose free-text information on how the profits/losses should be divided into parts representing Åland and Mainland Finland.

Åland-domiciled corporate entities must pay municipal tax on all its income to the tax authority of Åland, under the provisions governing municipal income tax  (for more information, see the official legal rules of the Province of Åland:  Ålands författningssamling 119/2011).

Under the same provisions, also an entity registered in the mainland must pay municipal tax to Åland on the part of its income attributable to the operation in Åland. However, under Finnish Income Tax Act, all corporate entities must pay income tax at the 20-percent rate, the proceeds from which are distributed between the State, municipalities and Church. For this reason, corporate entities operating in Åland have double municipal tax. However, the double taxation is eliminated either by the Tax Administration or the Provincial Government depending on your registered domicile.

2 Permanent establishment for purposes of income tax

Just tick one or the other:
  • The company believes that a PE for income tax purposes is formed; or the company owns immovable property in Finland.
  • The company believes that it should not be treated as having a PE for income tax purposes.
The company believes that a PE is formed or the company owns immovable property

Tick the box as appropriate, i.e. you have a permanent establishment, you own immovable property, or you receive profit shares from a Finnish consortium.

  • Generally, a foreign company must only pay Finnish tax on the income it acquires in Finland. However, if it is treated as having a permanent establishment in Finland, it is liable to pay Finnish tax on all the income attributable to that permanent establishment. 'Permanent establishment' means a fixed place of business through which the company conducts some or all of its operations. Such a fixed place may be a place of corporate management, an office, a 'dependent agent', or it may be a construction project or an installation project that lasts longer than a threshold time limit.
  • If a foreign company owns e.g. real estate property located in Finland and also receives income for it, the foreign company is liable to pay tax on the receipts of such income (§ 10, Income Tax Act).
  • If a foreign corporate entity is a partner in a Finnish partnership/consortium, it must report its receipts of profit-shares on the tax return. For example: a Finnish limited partnership operates a business in Finland, and a nonresident is a partner in the partnership. If income is received in the form of profit shares, it is taxable income, characterized as business income.
  • Further information (Income taxation of foreign corporate entities).
The company believes that it should not be treated as having a PE Tick the box as appropriate and enclose Form 80 (giving an account of your local operation).

3 Further details

Financial statements comply with international standards Tick the box if the P/L and balance sheet are drawn up in accordance with international standards (IAS/IFRS or GAAP) of accounting (within the meaning of the provisions in Chapter 7a, Accounting Act).

Has to prepare Transfer Pricing Documentation ( §14a, Act on Assessment Procedure, VML)

(complete Form 78)

Tick the box as appropriate. If Transfer Pricing Documentation is required, you must enclose Form 78 (Explanation of transfer pricing).

Transfer pricing documentation is required when transactions have been made between group companies in an associated relationship (as provided in §14, Act on Assessment Procedure), if the other party to the transaction is a foreign enterprise, or if a permanent establishment located in Finland is one of the parties, and its foreign parent is the other.

Parties to a transaction are in an associated relationship if one of them has a controlling interest and power over the other, or if there is a third party who, alone or together with a sphere of influence, can control both parties to the transaction (§31.2, Act on Assessment Procedure).

Transfer pricing documentation must be submitted by businesses that fulfill at least one of the following conditions:

  • Have at least 250 employees; or
  • Have more than €50 million of net sales and more than €43 million of balance-sheet total; or
  • Are not small or medium-size enterprises under the definition of the Commission recommendation 2003/361/EC. Nevertheless, it should be noted that most small and medium-sized companies operating in Finland as a member company of a multinational group enterprise are concerned by the obligation to submit documentation on transfer pricing. Because their owner is a foreign MNE group, the threshold values – regarding employees, net sales and balance-sheet total – concern the entire group.

Read more on the documentation requirement.

A branch office or a PE has been incorporated as provided in §52d, Business Tax Act.

The company has transferred the business unit formed by a branch or PE as provided in §52d, Business Tax Act.

Tick this box if you have relinquished the assets and liabilities connected with a business unit. The recipient should in that case be a limited company that will continue operating the business, and the payment should be made in the form of stock in that company.

For more information (in Finnish and Swedish) on the transfer of a business unit, see "Business ownership and taxes: transfers of businesses" – Yritysjärjestelyt ja verotus – liiketoimintasiirto (dnro A110/200/2015)

Calculation of taxable income (Business Tax Act)

Enter your taxable income and deductible expenses in the Tax Accounting column.

The other column labeled Accounting is for any entries of revenue and expenditure where amounts are not the same as in the Tax Accounting column.

However, you must complete both columns even though the amounts might be the same.

To arrive at the corporate taxpayer's net taxable income for the year, the Tax accounting column is used.  The revenues subject to tax of the "4 – Business Income" section are adjusted by deducting the expenses reported in  "5 – Business Costs".

The Calculation of taxable income is only for reporting the business revenues and expenses, not those that relate to other sources of income.

Personal source of income connected to the corporate taxpayer

Complete Form 7A to report profit and capital gains attributable to a personal source of income.

Examples of activities attributable to a personal source of income:

  • Renting out non-business real estate. The business source of income can only include real estate (under §53, Business Tax Act) if the property or building is exclusively used or almost exclusively used for business purposes.
  • Operating a forestry activity without a connection to the business.
  • Owning securities and stocks in a passive manner.
  • Renting out non-business residential apartments, and this activity is not the corporate taxpayer's business
  • Lending money to shareholders. If the company has collected interest on the loans it has granted to shareholders, or if the Tax Office has added an amount to the taxable corporate income because no interest was collected (under §29, Act on Assessment Procedure), the interest income is treated as part of the personal source of income.

Credit institutions, investment service companies, insurance companies

If you are one of the above, you are not expected to complete the Calculation of taxable income section  (Taxable profits / allowable loss).

You must complete Form 77 instead, and include any agricultural source of income and personal source of income in it. Form 77 is also for reporting the amounts not taken into consideration for purposes of calculating the taxable profits and losses.

How to enter amounts

Enter accurate figures, do not round out the cents, and do not use plus or minus characters.

The default rule is that any revenue will increase profits and any expense will decrease it. For this reason, plus and minus characters are not necessary.  However, if you enter an amount that does not follow the logic of the above default rule, you must enter a minus character (-) before the amount.

Example: Company reports a net sales amount which is negative.  Enter a minus in front of 1–Net sales (under 4 – Business income).

4 Business income

 

Enter the net sales as recorded in your accounting system.

This is the revenue from the sale of goods and services of your ordinary activities, after deduction of sales discounts, VAT and any other taxes directly linked to the sales amounts (Chapter 4, §1, Accounting Act).

If your net sales include dividends, you must report them in 3 – Financial income (Receipts of dividends and profit surplus) and deduct them from the net sales figure..

Sales of goods and services, external 

  

Sales of goods and services within the operation of the permanent establishment, the customers being external i.e. not associated with the multinational enterprise group.

Parties to a transaction are in an associated relationship if one of them has a controlling interest and power over the other, or if there is a third party who, alone or together with a sphere of influence, can control both parties to the transaction (§31.2, Act on Assessment Procedure).

Sales of goods and services to the parent/principal 

Sales of goods and services within the operation of the permanent establishment, the customers being other parties of the enterprise group.

'Other parties' within the group may refer to the parent company, the principal main operation, to other permanent establishments in other countries, or to branch offices of the company. 

Sales of goods and services to intra-group companies 

Sales of goods and services within the operation of the permanent establishment, the customers being group companies.

'Group companies' refers to the parent company within the meaning of Accounting Act, and to subsidiaries (Chapter 1, §6, Accounting Act).

2 Other operating income

Capital gains for selling shares included in fixed assets  

The Accounting column:

Enter the book value of the total gains received from the selling of shares, booked as fixed assets, and of the gains received from liquidations.

Specify the gains on Form 71A and Form 71B as follows:

  • Form 71A is for reporting tax-exempt capital gains from selling and liquidations of assets and for reporting non-deductible losses
  • Form 71B is for reporting tax-exempt capital gains from selling and liquidations of assets, and deductible losses. Similarly, Form 71B is also for capital and liquidation gains and corresponding losses from shares in partnerships or consortia

The Tax accounting column:

Enter the total of gains from Form 71B. You have filled out Form 71B to add up all the gains from the selling of shares in companies, partnerships and consortia that had been among fixed assets. Note: the total is arrived at after deducting the losses (capital and liquidation losses) from the selling of shares in companies, partnerships and consortia because these losses can only be deducted from capital gains.

Normally, gains received from the selling of shares booked as fixed assets are exempted from taxes (however, they are taxable if housing-company and real-estate-company shares were sold) if the company had held, for more than one year, at least 10% of the company the shares of which were sold, or at least 10% of the company that was liquidated (§6b and §51d, Business Tax Act).

From that follows that gains from the selling of shares in housing companies and real-estate companies are taxable, gains from the selling of shares held for a shorter time than one year are taxable, and gains from the selling of shares in companies where the ownership interest had been less than 10%.  If your corporate entity is a capital investment firm, its receipts of capital gains are always treated as taxable income.

In addition, include the amounts you have entered on lines 8 and 9 of Form 71A that reduce the tax-exempted selling price.  The selling price is taxable income if shares were sold that are basically tax-exempt but a gain (the difference between selling price and undepreciated acquisition cost) is created because of one of the following reasons:

  • A depreciation entry, allowed by the tax authority in a previous assessment (under §42, Business Tax Act)
  • A balance-sheet reserve or a subsidy amount that had been deducted from the acquisition cost
  • A capital loss derived from intra-company selling of shares within a multinational enterprise group

Read more (in Finnish and Swedish) on "Taxes on the gains derived from selling securities booked as fixed assets in the balance sheet"  – Verohallinnon ohje Yhteisön osakkeiden luovutusten verokohtelu.

Other revenues from sideline business

Taxable revenues (other than the above) included in the P/L.

Examples of these taxable revenues:

  • gains received from a sale of a line of business
  • received refunds of leasing fees
  • received insurance indemnities
  • rental income from real estate units rented out
  • rental income from space used for employee recreation
  • received income from office services supplied.

3 Financial income

Receipts of dividends and profit surplus

For the Accounting column: total received dividends and other distributions of profit as recorded in accounting, including advance dividends, and including refunds of profit surplus (§18.4, Business Tax Act) received from a cooperative society that can treat them as a deductible cost.

The following are distributions of profit under §6d, subsection 7, Business Tax Act

  • profit shares and interest from a savings bank
  • interest on the guarantee capital of a mutual insurance company or an insurance association.

Enclose Form 73 with a specification of the dividends received. However, if all your dividends are fully exempt from tax and sourced in Finland, you don't have to complete Form 73. 

Read more (in Finnish and Swedish) on the treatment of dividends in the instructions for Form 73

For the Tax accounting column:

Enter the taxable portion of your dividend receipts, which is the result of the Form 73 calculations.

If you are a nonlisted company receiving dividends of a listed company of which you own less than 10%, the entire amount is taxable income for you. It is also fully taxable for you if the distributing company can treat the dividend payments as a deductible cost. Similarly, refunds of profit surplus, received from a cooperative society (§18.4, Business Tax Act) are taxable income.

Similarly, report any REIT company dividends, because the entire amount is taxable income for you.

If you have a Controlled Foreign Company and have received dividends from it, fill out Form 74 and include the taxable portion of the dividends.

Shares of profits for consortia

The Accounting column: enter the amounts as recorded in your books.

Shares of profits for consortia are tax-exempt income.

Such profits, calculated under the provisions of §16 and §16a, Income Tax Act, are taxable income in the hands of the shareholders of the consortium.

The Tax accounting column: Taxable portions of profit shares

Enter the profit shares of domestic consortia, which are taxable under §16, Income Tax Act, and enter also the foreign and European profit shares (European Economic Interest Grouping (EEIG)) referred to in §16a, Income Tax Act.

Leave the line blank if the taxable portions are not known yet. Send additional information to the Tax Administration later if the actual size of the shared profit is determined after you file the tax return.

Other financial revenues and interest income 

This category includes foreign exchange gains.

4  Revaluation gains 

 

The Accounting column:

  • Book value of revaluation gains for financial assets (§5 a, line1, Business Tax Act).
  • Book value of revaluation gains for current assets (§5 a, line3, Business Tax Act).
  • Book value of revaluation gains for fixed assets (§5 a, line5, Business Tax Act).

The Tax Accounting column:

Normally, gains received due to revaluations are taxable income and the amount should be entered here. However, this type of gain may also be exempted income if the corresponding write-off of the value of fixed assets had not been allowed as a deductible expense in the tax assessment for that year (e.g. under §42, Business Tax Act).

5 Group subsidy received 

 

Enter any received payment of intra-group subsidy. Enclose Form 65 to specify.

6 Income from decreases of reserves

 

The Accounting column:

Enter the book values of how much the balance-sheet reserves have diminished, including the mandatory and tax-related reserves you have.

The Tax accounting column:

Enter the taxable portion of the income in the form of decreases of reserves. Examples of such income are:

  • A repurchase reserve that has
  • not been deducted (§43, Business Tax Act)
  • A guarantee reserve entered in the balance sheet of a construction company, shipbuilding company, metal industrial company – if the reserve amount is higher than the expenses paid for repairs under guarantee (§47).

Enclose Form 62 to specify the reserves in your accounting.

7 Other taxable revenues (not included in P/L)

 

Taxable income that is not included in the profit-and-loss account for the year.

Examples of revenues outside the P/L are the amounts of difference caused by varying periodization rules governing tax accounting and book accounting.   Builder-developer companies are an example of the lines of business concerned by these differences. For more information (in Finnish and Swedish), see "Builder-developer business and taxes" – Perustajaurakointiliiketoiminta verotuksessa.

Note: if the company makes a profit from the selling of its own corporate stock, it is not treated as taxable income, and you should not enter it on this line.

8 Taxable business income, total

  Enter the Tax accounting column sum, lines 1 to 7, representing total business income.

9 Refunds of taxes

 

Enter any tax refunds entered in the books (P/L) that must be treated as taxable income. Include any interest paid on refunds. The interest is tax-exempt.

10 Other tax-exempt revenues of the P/L

 

Enter the total of other tax-exempt revenues.

Examples: gains from a merger (§52b, Business Tax Act) and public support for cinematic arts (for more information, see §6.1.5, Business Tax Act).

If a corporate entity maintains a utility grid such as electric power, telecommunications, water, sewage, heating, and receives payments from their customers who sign a utility contract, the revenues of these payments are tax-exempt if they are intended to be refunded to the customers later. However, similar payments for signing may also be transferable. If that case, they are treated as taxable income and you should not include them in this line (under §6.1.3, Business Tax Act after amendments).

In addition, this line is for the capital gains received from the selling of assets subject to wear and tear, if the income derived from this is included in the P/L indirectly (§30, Business Tax Act). 

5 Business costs

1 Raw materials and services

Purchases, variation in stocks and inventory

Enter the following amounts:

  • Acquisition costs of any goods that were retired from the business during the accounting year
  • Purchases of additional goods

The change in the inventory of finished goods and work-in-progress (including both added and diminished inventory balance).

Services ‒ from parent/ principal and associated companies 

Enter the total amount of services you bought from the parent company and other group companies.

Services ‒ from external providers

Enter the total amount of services you bought from others; not the parent company or group companies.

2 Staff expenses

Wages and salaries, work done in Finland

Total of wages and fees as recorded in your payroll accounting books.

Pension expenses, work done in Finland   Total of pension expenses as recorded in your payroll accounting books.
Other payroll expenses, work done in Finland    Total of additional payroll expenses as recorded in your payroll accounting books.
Staff expenses related to PE in Finland, work done in other countries  Total of wages, fees and other payroll as recorded in your accounting, paid for work that is connected with the permanent establishment in Finland.

3 Depreciation and reduction in value of fixed assets

Depreciation

First complete Form 62.

The Accounting column:

Enter the depreciation expenses booked according to plan, including all depreciation expenses and differences in depreciation that have a profit-and-loss effect.

Transfer the total from Form 62 to this field.

The Tax accounting column: Enter the deductible portion

Transfer the depreciation permitted by Business Tax Act, including additional amounts and specific tax-relief depreciation expenses from Form 62 to this field.

  • Reference to Business Tax Act, permitting deductible depreciation expenses (elinkeinoverolaki, EVL): §§ 24, 30–34 and 36–41.
  • Enter an amount that corresponds to the total depreciation under Business Tax Act that you reported on Form 62 (items 5 and 6 on Form 62).

Also, enter any previously unused depreciation that you want to use the current year.

  • Fill in the details on your unused depreciation on Form 12A.
  • If during the current year, your company accumulates more depreciation that you don't use, you must complete Form 12A to report it.

Although it may be permitted under international accounting standards, assets you have under a leasing contract are not subject to depreciation for tax purposes.  For this reason, do not enter such expenses in the Tax Accounting column.

Reduction in the value of fixed assets

The Accounting column:

Enter the written-off amount not included in the depreciation expense, as recorded in your accounting.

The Tax accounting column:  Enter the deductible portion

Enter the portion of the reduced value or writeoff that is treated as deductible from taxes under §42, Business Tax Act.

Only the following are deductible:

  • Reduced value of other securities than corporate stock
  • Reduced value of other fixed assets (not subject to wear and tear) than land if the fair market value at the end of the tax year is significantly lower than the residual acquisition cost remaining undepreciated

4 Other operating costs

Entertainment expenses

The Accounting column:

Enter all the book expenses in this category. Read more about entertainment expenses (in Finnish and Swedish).

The Tax accounting column: Enter the deductible portion

  • Half of the expenses (50%)
  • (§8.1.8, Business Tax Act).
Donations granted

The Accounting column:

Enter all the donations you have given, as recorded in your accounting.

The Tax accounting column: Enter the deductible portion

Enter the deductible portion of them.

Only reasonable amounts of donations paid to nonprofit organizations are deductible, normally it is also required that the organization is active in the local district or operates an activity with something in common with your sector of business.

Subject to certain restrictions, corporate entities may also deduct donations paid for the benefit of cultural heritage, scientific purpose, artistic purpose, and of which the amount is at least €850 (under §57, Income Tax Act).

Capital losses from selling securities (booked as) fixed assets

The Accounting column:

Enter the losses due to selling and liquidations of shares and partnership shares as they are recorded in your accounting.

Fill out Form 71A and Form 71B as follows:

  • Form 71A is enclosed as a specification of the amounts that do not have impact on your taxes i.e. the tax-exempt gains and the non-deductible losses – relating to the sale of capital assets and liquidation.
  • Form 71B is for taxable capital and liquidation gains and correspondingly, tax-exempt capital and liquidation losses. The deductible losses may either have unlimited deductibility or a restriction that limits it only to the current tax year and five subsequent years.
  • In addition, capital and liquidation gains (and losses) relating to the shares you have held in partnerships must be reported on Form 71B.

The Tax accounting column: Enter the deductible portion

Enter the capital and liquidation losses that are subject to unlimited deductibility.  Examples of them include:

  • Capital losses for the selling of fixed assets belonging to a corporate entity engaging in investment activities
  • Losses derived from the selling of business assets such as housing-company shares and comparable other shares.

Note: normally, capital losses are non-deductible (and the corresponding capital gains are exempted) and must not be entered here.

Capital losses may additionally be available for deduction only in respect of taxable capital gains of the fixed-asset stockholding, either during the tax year or during five subsequent years.

  • This type of deduction from gains is already made at the stage when calculations are drawn up to arrive at the taxable value of the capital gain, which is entered in '4' section (4 – Business income), line 2 ”Other operating income”. For this reason, you must not enter the capital losses here.
Write-offs within Accounts Receivable Enter the amount (§17.2, Business Tax Act).
PE-related management costs of the parent/principal 

Management costs paid by the principal or parent, but related to the permanent establishment in Finland. Examples of such costs include:

  • Expenses for staff on-the-job training. Recreation expenses 
  • IT expenses and other data transmission costs
  • Marketing expenses. 
Other deductible business costs

Enter any deductible business costs, directly relating to the permanent establishment in Finland, and not entered in the lines of the Tax Accounting column as other operating costs. Examples of such costs include the following

  • Additional personnel expenses paid on a voluntary basis
  • Office expenses
  • Motor vehicle expenses
  • IT system work, hardware and software
  • Other machinery & equipment
  • Travel expenses
  • Sales expenses
  • Marketing expenses
  • Research & Development
  • Administrative expenses
  • Other overhead
  • Other business expenses
Also enter the tax-deductible Public Broadcasting Tax and Real Estate Tax paid.

Non-deductible costs

These lines are for information on non-tax-deductible cost items recorded in company accounting books as part of the profit-and-loss account.

Enter the amounts in the lines without including them in the Calculation of taxable income.
Direct taxes

Enter any income-tax costs with P/L effect. This means that you should enter the taxes that relate to the accounting period on an accrual basis, not only the payments of taxes in advance that were made during it.

Do not enter Real Estate Tax in this line because it is treated as a tax-deductible expense.

Tax increase

All tax increases are non-deductible regardless of what tax is their base.

Enter additionally tax-like charges such as late-payment fees, surtax and negligence penalties – also these payments are non-deductible.

Fines and other penalties  

Enter any payments of fines, sanctioned penalties and similar (under §16.5, Business Tax Act).

Reduction in value of shares included in fixed assets

Enter any amounts of writeoffs of the value of corporate stock booked among the fixed assets of the balance sheet.

If a depreciation entry is made due to such writeoffs, it is not deductible.

Statutory reserves  

Enter the balance-sheet reserves as they are recorded in your accounting. Normally, they are not deductible.

What is meant by 'statutory reserves' is the amount reflecting estimated future expenses and losses. No exact amount or date of payment is known yet ( Chapter 5, §14, Accounting Act ).

These future expenses may be caused by a renovation of a production plant, the termination of such a plant, guarantee clauses affecting repair costs of sold goods, customer grievance claims and payments for damages.

The balance-sheet reserve for purposes of guarantee expenses is a deductible reserve: companies in the construction, shipbuilding, and metal industry sectors may create it if they carry responsibility for the delivery of a building, bridge, aircraft, a unit of machinery (for more information, see §47, Business Tax Act). It must be entered in the Tax Accounting column, "7 – Increases of reserves”.

Other non-deductible costs

Enter any other nondeductible expenses that cannot be entered elsewhere.

Examples:

  • If tax-exempt income is being received and there are expenses for its production or maintenance and upkeep, it is a nondeductible expense. However, if the amount of the expense is higher than the tax-exempt income, the excess is deductible (§16.2, Business Tax Act).
  • If payments for creating a connection with a utility grid such as electric power, telecommunications, water, sewage, heating were made, and these payments are refunded to the corporate entity later if the utility contract is terminated, it is a nondeductible expense (§16.3, Business Tax Act). 
  • If bribe money was paid to someone in any form, it not deductible.
  • If the corporate entity buys back its own shares, the amount paid is a non-deductible expense unless the shares had been given to the seller due to an employment contract (§16.9, Business Tax Act, §18.3, Business Tax Act). 

5 Financial expenses

Interest paid to companies within the same group – Deductible portion (§18 a)

Enter the interest expense resulting from your payments of interest on debt received from associated companies, Finnish or foreign.

  • Example: interest payments to companies of the same group (under Chapter 1, §6, Accounting Act).

Debt between associated parties may be direct or indirect. It is direct when an associated relationship exists between the parties under §31, Act on Assessment Procedure (under §18a, subsection 5, Business Tax Act). What is regarded as the indirect form of debt between associated parties is the following:

  • the associated party has a receivable from an unassociated party – and this receivable is connected to the debt; or
  • the debt collateral is a receivable from an unassociated party (§18a, subsection 6).

Interest payments relating to associated debt may additionally include amounts relating to indirect debt under §18a, subsection 1, Business Tax Act, if they are not entered in the books as interest payments made to companies belonging to the same group (Chapter 1, §6, Accounting Act). For this reason, the total interest expense entered on this line may be higher than that recorded in the accounting system.

 

The Tax accounting column: Enter the deductible portion (§18a, Business Tax Act)

Enter all the deductible interest expenses in this line, maximum deduction being the amount of your interest income. You may deduct all your interest expenses if company net interest expense (the amount by which the expense exceeds the income) does not go over the threshold of €500,000.

Complete Form 81 (Explanation of interest expenses — Selvitys elinkeinotoiminnan nettokorkomenoista), if the net expense is more than €500,000. You may deduct the part exceeding €500,000 up to a limit correspond­ing to max. 25% of your adjusted business profits. The amount of net interest expense that cannot be deducted is maximally equal to the net interest expense between the companies that have an associated relationship.

  • Transfer the net interest expense (on associated debt) from Form 81 into this field. Also include any previous years' net interest expense (associated debt) that your company wants to have deducted during the tax year (by claiming it on Form 81).
Interest paid to associated and affiliated companies Interest income paid to companies where there is a participating interest (Chapter 1, §7, Accounting Act).
Interest paid to parent/principal 

The Accounting column

Enter the amount that the PE or branch has entered in the books as payments of interest to the main operation ( i.e. the parent company, the principal ).

The Tax accounting column

Enter the deductible portion.
Other interest paid

Other interest expenses, e.g. relating to

  • Accounts payable
  • Bonds
  • Convertible bonds
  • Bank loans
  • Finance company loans
  • Pension company loans
  • Bills of exchange
Group support and write-offs of Accounts Receivable

Group support payment going to a member of the group of which you hold 10% either alone or jointly with other group companies (under §6b.7, Business Tax Act).

Enter the other similar expenses paid for the purpose of improving the financial standing of another company without reciprocal compensation from that company. Indicate any write-offs and decreases in value of the receivables you may have (excluding Accounts Receivable) from such a company.

These amounts are not deductible (§16.7, Business Tax Act).
Losses of other financial assets and final reductions in value

The Accounting column:

Enter the book value of any other financial assets that have been lost. An example is a loss of money due to theft or other crimes.

The Tax accounting column: Enter the deductible portion

Enter the deductible portion of the value of lost assets.

  • Lost financial assets are treated as deductible expenses (§17.1, Business Tax Act).
  • Similarly, under §17.2, Business Tax Act, final reductions in value are treated as deductible expenses unless a receivable from another group company is in question (for more information, see ”Group support and write-offs of Accounts Receivable" above).
Capital losses from the selling of financial assets Enter the capital losses as they are recorded in your accounting, e.g. sale of a corporate share or sale of a receivable at a low selling price.
Other financial expenses

Enter the expenses as they are recorded in accounting:

  • Loan expenses
  • Fees for credit limits
  • Commissions for collaterals
  • Insurance premiums for credit insurance
  • Mortgage fees
  • Fees for collection
  • Foreign-exchange losses
  • Factoring expenses
  • Forwarding expenses.

6 Group subsidy paid out 

  Enter the expense you have paid as a group subsidy, and enclose Form 65.

7 Increases of reserves 

 

The Accounting column:

Enter the expenses in the form of the increase of reserves, and enclose Form 62.

The Tax accounting column: Enter the deductible portion

Enter the portion that can be deducted.

Corporate entities using Form 6B can only deduct the repurchase reserve under §43, Business Tax Act and the guarantee reserve under §47, Business Tax Act.

8 Other deductible costs  (not included in P/L)

 

Examples of these expenses include the dividend payments connected with the beneficiary's work effort.  (Under §33 b, subsection 3; for more information in Finnish and Swedish, see "Taxes and dividend payments that reflect the work effort of the shareholder-beneficiary" Työpanokseen perustuvan osingon verotus, dnro 1103/32/2009).

Enter the deduction for training claimed by the company, and enclose Form 79.

9 Tax-deductible business costs, total

  Enter the Tax Accounting column total.

6 Taxable profits / tax-deductible losses

This section is for profits or allowable losses for the 2017 taxable year.

Do not enter the losses for previous years as the Tax Administration deducts them automatically unless significant changes – section 11  – have taken place in share ownership. Check the Tax Decision for exact amounts.
Profit from business activities

Enter a positive economic result in this line.

Subtract Tax-deductible business costs (section 5 of the form, line 9) from Taxable business income (section 4, line 8).  
Loss from business activities

Enter the allowable loss in this line. This is normally the negative difference that results from subtracting Tax-deductible business costs (section 5, line 9) from Taxable business income (section 4, line 8).

However, if your expenses include donations or group subsidy payments you have made (Amounts not taken into consideration), you must reduce the loss in this field by their amount.    
Amounts not taken into consideration

Payments of intra-group subsidy, reserves on the balance sheet for residential dwellings (asuintalovaraus), and donations are amounts that are not taken into consideration (§57, Income Tax Act).

The deduction based on the giving of a donation is not taken into consideration when the corporate taxpayer's allowable loss is calculated (§ 57, Income Tax Act) because it is based on special tax rules.  However, it is taken into consideration in case the calculation concerns a personal source of income for which a loss is made.  

Taxes at source withheld in Finland on company income 

  Enter the amount.

7 Key figures for the parent/principal company 

Turnover of the parent/principal enterprise (for its entire operations) Enter the worldwide sales/turnover of the multinational enterprise group (book values). 
Total expenses  Enter the worldwide expenses of the multinational enterprise group. 
Profit or loss for the accounting period   Enter the worldwide profit or loss of the multinational enterprise group. 
Number of staff  Enter the number of employees.

Calculation of Net Worth 

All corporate entities must complete the Calculation of Net Worth because the information is needed for statistical purposes etc.  However, if you are stock-exchange listed, you may fill in the assets and liabilities at book values because the taxes to be imposed on any dividends you may distribute are not affected by the corporate entity's Net Worth and the stock's mathematical value.   Besides, if you are stock-exchange listed, the comparison values of your share depend on market quotes, not on the book values on the balance sheet.

For purposes of this Guidance, a 'listed' corporate entity means a company with all its stock, or a series of shares, being subject to stock-exchange trading in Finland (the basic listing or the 'Pre List' of NASDAQ OMX Helsinki Oy), elsewhere in the European Economic Area, or in a comparable market outside the European Economic Area.

If you are a credit institution, an insurance company or a provider of investment services (regardless of whether you are listed or non-listed), you do not have to complete the Calculation of Net Worth fully. You only have to fill in the totals of assets and liabilities.

If you are a corporate entity that does not operate a trade or business, fill in Other long-term investments (Income Tax Act) at the bottom part of the column to specify your assets, and fill in "9 – Liabilities" to specify your liabilities.  

 

8 Assets

Enter all assets as amounts equalling their undepreciated, residual acquisition cost unless the guidance instructs you to do otherwise. Calculation of Net Worth may contain asset values that deviate from those on your company's balance sheet. 

Fixed assets

The business assets intended for permanent use are fixed assets (§12, Business Tax Act).

In accounting, they are normally included in the Non-Current Assets category of accounts.

Examples of the fixed assets that are subject to wear and tear include

  • Buildings
  • Machinery
  • Equipment and other fixtures
  • Patents and other intangible rights that are transferable.

Complete Form 62 to itemize the depreciation expenses relating to your fixed assets including any changes in the differences between planned and book depreciation.

Land, securities and similar fixed assets are regarded as not being subject to wear and tear.  

Intangible assets

Enter the total value of your intangible assets, examples include the following:

  • Patents
  • Copyrights
  • Trade mark rights
  • Paid license fees 
  • Rights to conduct a certain business
  • License fees of computer software..

Other non-current investments

Enter the non-current investments that have retained their value and can be treated as assets (see the corresponding line on Form 62). 

Enter the expenses that help generate income for longer than three years or contribute to the upkeep and maintenance of income for longer than three years. They include amounts that you have transferred to the balance sheet from the P/L under the rules defined by the relevant provisions of Business Tax Act. The provisions of §24, Business Tax Act refer to leasehold improvement costs and the acquisition cost of business goodwill. In addition, courts of law have issued rulings about research & development expenses that can at least partially be treated as investments i.e. assets with some value.

If you have an expected tax receivable according to your calculations, it is not treated as an asset, similarly, the expenses for setting up and organizing your corporate entity are not investments, and if any non-current investments have lost their value, they cannot be treated as assets. 

If there has been an equity difference in the books caused by a merger, it may have a positive value and be considered an asset. In that case, it must be entered as part of the net worth of the receiving company (Rulings of the Supreme Adm. Court, 1994 B 545 and 1994 B 546).

Real estate, buildings and structures  
(Form 18)

Enter the total value of real estate, buildings and structures included in company fixed assets.

Complete Form 18.

The value should either be the undepreciated residual acquisition cost (= line 7 on Form 62, undepreciated balance at end of year) or a comparison value (= tax value), whichever is higher.

Comparisons must be made separately for each specific unit of real estate.

The concept of real estate includes both the building and the land on which it is located.

Additionally, under § 6, Income Tax Act, buildings, structures etc. located on land that belongs to another owner are also regarded as real estate, provided that they are transferable to a third party without the need to obtain consent from the owner of the land, so that the right of possession over the land also is transferable. 

If the end date of company accounting year falls in 1 January – 30 September 2017, you must use the confirmed 2016 tax value of the real estate because the 2017 value would not yet be confirmed. 

If the end date of company accounting year falls in 1 October – 31 December 2017, you must use the confirmed 2017 tax value of the real estate. 

Other structures treated as being fixed assets are:

  • Fuel tanks, acid tanks and similar structures made of metal or other materials and intended for storage
  • Light structures made of wood or other comparable materials
  • Structures only serving a purpose of R&D with a view to further your business objectives.

Comparison values of woodlands are calculated as: average annual returns × 10. 

Comparison value of farmlands: average annual returns × 7. An official decision of the Tax Administration is the source for determining the average annual returns.  

Comparison value is 0 for bodies of water and for land that cannot be used. 

Machinery and equipment

Enter the total the undepreciated residual acquisition cost of the machinery and equipment.

Examples include

  • Machines
  • Trucks, lorries, vans
  • Passenger cars
  • Transport vehicles
  • Furniture
  • Rental machinery and equipment that you offer for rent

If you have equipment in your company held under a leasing contract, it is not regarded as being part of fixed assets for tax purposes. Do not enter its value here.  

Cash advances paid

Enter the advances booked as fixed assets.

Securities included in fixed assets
(Form 8A)

Fill out Form 8A to make a comparison between the undepreciated acquisition costs of securities that are booked in fixed assets in the balance sheet, in financial assets, and in other non-current investment.

Transfer the sum of securities, booked under fixed assets, from the column where the total value of securities is higher. Transfer that sum to this line.

The value of stock-exchange-listed securities is 70% of the current market value at the market closing on the end date of your accounting period. Katso pörssikurssit (www.nasdaqomxnordic.com). Site for historical market quotes.

The comparison value of a share in an investment fund or a UCITS is 70% of the fair market value at the end of the year.

The comparison value of an unlisted stock is the value indicated by the Tax Administration on the assessment decision of the company concerned.

If shares in a housing company were bought prior to 1 January 2006, their comparison value is the 2005 comparison value.

  • There is no specific comparison value for housing-company shares bought after 1 January 2006 similarly as there is no such value for unlisted bonds, call-option rights, and shares in cooperative societies.  The undepreciated acquisition cost must therefore also be entered in the "comparison value" column on Form 8A.

Receivables from companies within same group

Enter the receivables treated as fixed assets in your books.

For purposes of this field on the form, 'companies within the same group' refers to parent companies and subsidiaries as defined by Accounting Act (under Chapter 1, §6, Accounting Act).

Receivables from associated/affiliated companies

Fill in as appropriate (in reference to Chapter 1, §7, Accounting Act).

Other non-current receivables

Enter other receivables treated as fixed assets in your books.

Other fixed assets

Enter any other items belonging to your fixed assets.

Examples of this category include animals, plants, works of art and collectibles.

Fixed assets, total

Add up all the entries under this sub-heading.

Current assets 

Under the provisions of § 10, Business Tax Act, current assets are merchandise, raw materials, semi-finished goods and other goods intended for handing over to a customer in the course of business, with or without further processing. Additionally, fuel and lubricants, and other comparable supplies, intended for consumption in the course of business are regarded as current assets.

Enter current assets as amounts equalling their acquisition cost adjusted by a reduction in value as provided in § 28, subsection 1, Business Tax Act if necessary.

Real estate and buildings/current assets

Enter the values as appropriate.

Other current assets

Examples:

  • Materials and supplies
  • Work-in-progress
  • Finished products
  • Goods
  • Securities  treated as current assets
  • Advances paid for current assets
Current assets, total Add up all the entries under this sub-heading.

Financial assets 

Financial assets include cash and banks, receivables in the form of bank account balances, bills of exchange etc. (§9, Business Tax Act).

Additionally, accounts receivable and cash reserves in the form of securities are also regarded as financial assets.

Enter financial assets as amounts equalling their nominal values when a receivable is in question, and use acquisition cost values for other financial assets. Both types of assets must first be adjusted for reduction in value as provided in §17, Business Tax Act.

If the receivables are not denominated in euros, you must convert them into euros following the same rules as how you convert foreign currency amounts for accounting purposes, i.e. by the exchange rate of the balance-sheet date (Chapter 5, §3, Accounting Act).  

Financial assets, total Add up all the entries under this sub-heading.

Other long-term investments
 (Income Tax Act; TVL)

Assets that are outside your business and taxed under Income Tax Act must not be included in the above lines for fixed assets, current assets or investment assets. Instead, enter them in lines below. 

Enter all assets as amounts equalling their undepreciated, residual acquisition cost unless the guidance instructs you to do otherwise.  

Securities
(Form 8A)

Specify the corporate stock and other securities that you own which do not directly serve an operational business purpose. 

Complete Form 8A to specify the securities you have booked as fixed assets and financial assets including other noncurrent investment (= assets within the meaning of Income Tax Act). Transfer the sum, from the column where the amount is higher at the bottom of Form 8A.

Real property and buildings (Form 18)

Enter any real estate that does not serve the business purposes of your company. For example, enter any real estate you have rented out to a tenant.

The value should either be the undepreciated residual acquisition cost (used for income taxation purposes) or a comparison value (= tax value), whichever is higher.

If the end date of company accounting year falls in 1 January – 30 September 2017, you must use the confirmed 2016 tax value of the real estate.  

Other assets enumerated by the Income Tax Act 

Other assets not directly serving a business purpose.  

Other long-term investments (Income Tax Act), total

Total value of fixed, current and financial assets and the value of other long-term investments (under Income Tax Act).   

Assets total    

9 Liabilities   

Loans from financial institutions  

Enter the following:

  • Long-term and short-term loans from banks and other financial inst. 
  • Loans from financing companies
  • Factoring balances
  • Other short-term loans from financial institutions.
Amounts owed to companies within the same group

Enter the short-term and long-term debts your company owes to other group companies. However, do not enter any accounts payable balances here.

Examples of these debts:

Advance payments received from group companies
Debt from group in the form of bills of exchange
Other intra-group debt
Accrued items, when the counterpart is a company belonging to the same group.
For a definition of group companies, see Chapter 1, §6, Accounting Act on parent and subsidiary entities within a group undertaking.

If the group of companies has applied a system of distributing dividends in advance, and your company distributes them, you must not include any unpaid dividends in your debts. Instead, they must be subtracted from the net worth of the company in the same way as any other dividends that are going to be paid out.

Amounts owed to associated/affiliated companies   Long-term and short-term debt owed to shareholders and their family.
Accruals and deferred income Total of wages, fees and other payroll as recorded in your accounting, paid for work that is connected with the permanent establishment in Finland.

Other liabilities  

  • Examples include the following:
  • Long-term borrowing from pension insurance companies
  • Advances received 
  • Bills of exchange, debts to be paid back to employees
  • Short-term bills of exchange
  • Debt consisting of payroll withholding money
  • Debt consisting of employer's health insurance contributions
  • Accounts payable
  • Bond debt
  • Debenture debt

If you are an insurance company or a pension insurance company, you must enter outbound payments you are responsible for as debt; and also a balance-sheet reserve must be entered as debt (within the meaning of the act on the valuation of property and assets).

Debt also includes the payments received from those who join a utility grid (electric power, telecommunications, etc) if the amounts must be refunded to the customers upon termination of the utility contract (within the meaning of the act on the valuation of property and assets).

For purposes of Calculation of Net Worth, tax debt estimates within the meaning of Chpt.5, §18, Accounting Act, are not debt, so they are not entered as a debt in the Calculation of Net Worth. On the other hand, any tax debt booked for the same accounting period (accrual basis accounting) is always entered as a debt.
Subordinated loans taken  

Enter the total of borrowing (within the meaning of Chpt.12, §1 of Companies Act).

For tax purposes, this type of loan is normally treated as external-source capital i.e. as borrowed (for more information, see the Act on the valuation of property and assets, section 2, subsection 3). For this reason, it must be entered as a debt in the Calculation of Net Worth.  

Liabilities total

Sum total of the entries that represent debt.

Please note that the amount entered here is not necessarily the sum of Current liabilities total and Non-current liabilities total because they are from company accounting books but the amount entered here is based on Tax Accounting.  

Current liabilities total

Book balance of your short-term debt. 

Non-current liabilities total

Book balance of your long-term debt.

10 Auditor's report

Have the auditors given their report?

If your company has the obligation to have its financial statements audited, you must enclose Auditor's Report.

  • Tick “Yes” if the auditor has finished their audit work before you file the tax return.
  • Tick “No” if audit is not completed yet, but is going to be completed later.

If the audit is not completed by the due date of your tax return and Auditor's Report is not yet available, you must deliver it to the Tax Administration later: the deadline for such delivery is one month after the date of completion of the audit.

If you e-file, you can log on again later to add any further documentation.

If you opt for paper filing, you must staple Form 63 to the Auditor's Report and send it to

Finnish Tax Administration
OCR Service – Corporate taxpayers' tax returns
P.O. box 200
00052 VERO

Tick “No auditor appointed” if the corporate entity refrained from appointing an auditor under the provisions of the amended Act (Auditing Act 1141/2015) that concern small businesses.

Corporate entities are allowed to not appoint an auditor if only one (maximally one) of the following preconditions is fulfilled in the latest and the preceding accounting period: 

  • Balance Sheet assets/liabilities exceed €100,000.
  • Net sales exceed €200,000.
  • Average number of people on the payroll is 3 or more.

Nevertheless, it is mandatory for the company/other entity to appoint an auditor if its Charter, Articles of Association etc. contain provisions to that effect.

Some additional legal provisions are found in chapter 2 §2.4, Auditing Act concerning certain industries and spheres of influence.

Are there disapproving statements/remarks?

Tick ”No” if the text of the Auditor's Report is free from disapprovals within the meaning of the Act on Auditing.

Correspondingly, tick "Yes" if the contents of the Auditor's Report gives reason to do so.

11 Changes of the shareholding, information on past losses 

Always complete this section if more than half of the shares have changed hands in the course of a single taxable year, or step-by-step in the course of several years. Facts about share transfers have an effect on the deduction rights of past losses.

Losses of a corporate taxpayer are deductible against its taxable profits, attributable to the same source of income as the losses were, over the ten tax years following the year of the loss.

Impact of shareholder changes (ownership changes)

Corporate taxpayers lose their entitlement to tax deductions for past-years' losses if more than half of its shares, directly or indirectly, have changed hands and been transferred to a new owner during the year when the loss was made or during a later year, and the reason for the change was not an inheritance or a will (i.e. there was a sale transaction or an exchange transaction).

However, a corporate taxpayer may ask the Tax Administration to give a special permission (under §122, Income Tax Act) for the deductions to stay in force.

Indirect changes in ownership i.e. differences in the proportions of shareholding are taken into consideration if a shareholder is incorporated and has at least a 20-percent holding, and the majority of the shares of this incorporated shareholder is transferred to a new owner. In such cases, all the shares are treated as having been transferred to a new owner.

Example: X Oy owns all of the shares in Z Oy. When more than half of X Oy's shares go over to a new owner, all the shares of Z Oy are treated as having been transferred to a new owner.

Changes in ownership of a stock-exchange-listed company, with its shares being publicly traded, do not prevent the deductions discussed here.

Changes of the shareholding, information on past losses

Enter the tax year of the change if more than half of corporate stock has been transferred to new owners in the course of the past ten tax years.

Similarly, enter the year even if this has occurred progressively: the change in ownership may have happened during a period spanning several years, or there may have been indirect changes of ownership the past ten tax years.  In this case, indicate the tax year before which or during which any losses made by the company would not be deductible because the current owner is different.  In addition, write out a separate enclosure to explain the changes of ownership and the dates when they occurred and tick the "14 List of enclosures—Other" box.

Example: Corporate stock consists of 100 shares, held by one single individual. She sells 50 shares to someone in 2015, and one share to someone in 2016.  This means that more than half of the stock changed hands, taking into consideration both years 2015 and 2016.  The company made losses for the 2012 to 2016 tax years.

The company must enter 2015 as the tax year when the change took place, and write out a separate enclosure, in order to explain the changes of ownership and the dates when they occurred.

The company is in this case not allowed to deduct its losses for 2012 to 2015 from its 2017 profits. In 2016, a year when the company also made a loss, just one share was transferred to a new owner. Consequently, the company is entitled to deduct its 2016 loss from its 2017 profits. 

There may be a change in ownership relations although the owners stay the same: for example, the company issues a set of new shares but only some of the old shareholders sign up to by them. The proportionality of share ownership among the shareholders is no longer the same.  

12 List of  enclosures 

 

Tick the boxes as appropriate.

The Other Enclosures category includes free-form documentation – for example, and explanation of the breakdown of profit generation between Åland Islands and Mainland Finland. 

Please avoid submitting any free-form enclosures that are not discussed in this guidance unless they are necessary due to specific facts and circumstances.
If you file Form 6U on paper, don't forget to authorize it with your signature and write down the date.  

List of enclosure forms and their instructions:

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